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Issued by the Center Of Desert Studies- University Of Anbar- Ministry of Higher Education And Scientific Research- Iraq Scope: the (IJDS) is concerned with unpublished scientific papers in all fields related to desert studies (Desertification ,Geology ,Hydrology ,Hydrogeology , Geography, Biology ,Remote sensing...etc.) dealing with Iraq & neighboring countries. The main aim of the Journal is to develop the scientific research in various aspects of Desert & Desertification studies , the Journal also accepts scientific discussions & comments on the published papers. The...
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A Comparative Study of Evapotranspiration Measurement Using SEBAL Model and Atmometer in the Diyala River Basin

Ibraheem A. H. Al-Sumaidaie; Ramzi M. Shihab; Aiad A. khalaf

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174556

Satellite images were taken on the following dates, 1/3/2020, 2/4/2020, 23/3/2020, 24/4/2020, 10/5/2020, 11/6/2020 and 7/13/2020 from the web of the  USGS to the area of A.L.- Muqdadiya District, Diyala river basin, Diyala Governorate within (45˚0′7.268̋ and 44˚ 46′ 0.063̋) east and (34˚8′ 47.475̋ and 33˚56′36.621̋) north. The total study area was 736,372 km2, and the area covered with vegetation was 477,606 km2. The SEBAL model was wired to estimate evapotranspiration (E.T.)  for the months of the study, both locally and temporally. Remote sensing was used based on satellite  Landsat-8  images by sensor OLI  as radiation data input. In addition, the meteorological data was used for each date. 28 points were randomly taken within the study area. Atmometer (ETgage) was used to measure daily evapotranspiration, Also the Penman-Monteith equation (FAO56). Was used to estimate E.T. The results showed a good relationship between E.T., estimated by the SEBAL model and measured with an atmometer (R2 = 0.9508). Also, good agreement was showed  between SEBAL and FAO 56 (R2 = 0.9913) and atmometer and FAO 56 (R2 = 0.9216). 437 Mm3 of water is required to meet the needs of crops, representing the maximum quantity of water for the study period. 

Effect of Evapotranspiration and Tillage Pattern on Water Use Efficiency and Growth, Yield of Chenopodium quinoa

Abdul Sameea J.A. Al Hiti; Issam Kh. H. Al-Hadethi; Saifuldeen A. Salim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174555

The field experiment is conducted in sandy loam soil during the spring season of 2021 in western Iraq, Hit district, Anbar Governorate. It is located at longitude 95° 42ꞌ 25ʺ N and latitude 68° 33ꞌ 42ʺ E at 71 m.asl. This study aims to study the effect of irrigation and plough on the yield and efficiency of water use of the Chenopodium quinoa plant in desert soil in western Iraq. The experiment layout includes three tillage patterns ) No-tillage To, minimum tillage T1, and conventional tillage T2), three irrigation treatments )ET 0.75  -ET 1.00 - ET 1.25(, and a randomized complete block design is used with three replicates. Treatment T2 ET 1.00 has the highest drought resistance of 0.1793 and the highest plant length of 118.4 cm for T2 ET 1.25 treatment with an increase of 70% compared to the lowest value of plant length in the treatment To ET 0.75. The highest value of plant branches is 22 for T2 ET 1.25. The highest value of leaf area is 32.87 cm2 for T2 ET 1.25 treatment. Seed yield has reached the highest value of 5.25 tons ha-1 for the treatment T2 ET 1.25. Root length characteristic has reached the highest root length value with 41.67 cm for T2 ET 1.25. The water use efficiency characteristic has reached the highest value of 0.204 kg.m-3 for the treatment T2 ET 1.00. The highest crop coefficient value has been reached in the ET 1.25 treatment during the germination and growth phase.

Effect of Phosphate Fertilization on the Growth and Yield of Three Genotypes of Faba Bean( Vicia faba L.)

Ismail A. Sarhan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174557

A field experiment was carried out in the winter season 2020-2021 in Al- Bualwan area of  Fallujah District - Anbar Governorate to study the effect of phosphate fertilization on the growth and yield traits of the faba bean crop. The experiment was applied using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) according to the split-plot arrangement with three replications. The main plots included three levels of phosphate fertilization (0, 60, 120) kg P2O5 h-1, while the sub plots included three faba bean genotypes (American, Italian, and Dutch). According to the study levels, phosphate fertilizer was added in one batch before planting. The most important results were the following: The American genotype superiority in growth and yield traits, giving the highest average for each plant height( 95.63) cm, number of branches (10.11 ) branch plan-1 , leaf area per plant( 1053) cm2 plant-1, number of pods( 17.50 )pod plant-1, number of seeds per pod (6.11) seed pod-1, the weight of 100 seed (96.06) g and the total seed yield is( 4.168) tons ha-1. The effect of phosphate fertilizer was significantly in most of the studied traits. The level 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave the highest average for each of the plant height( 94.00) cm, number of branches( 9.83) branch plant-1, leaf area of the plant (2342) cm 2 plant-1, number of pods (17.83) pod plant-1, weight of 100  seed( 95.44) g and total seeds yield( 4.078) tons ha-1. There was a significant interaction between the American genotype and the level of 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 of phosphate fertilizer in plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, number of pods per plant and weight of 100 seeds.

Effect of Levels of Potassium Fertilizer and Seeding Rates on the Growth and Yield of Oats Avena Sativa L.

Mohammed R. J. Thmail; Waleed A. T. El-Fahdawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 38-47
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174558

A field experiment was carried out at the Research Station of the College of Agriculture-University of Anbar in Hamidiyah area of Ramadi District-Anbar Governorate and located at 33º north latitude and 43º east longitude, during the winter season of 2020-2021, to study the effect of four levels of potassium fertilizer (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg K ha-1) In the form of potassium sulfateK2SO4(41.5% K)and four seeding rates(80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1)on growth, yield and components of oats. The randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used according to the split-plot arrangement, with three replicates. The main plot was the seeding rates, and the subplots were potassium fertilizer levels. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the seeding rate exceeded 140kg ha-1 significantly in some studied traits: height of the plant, number of tiller m-2, number of panicles (297.4 paniclem-2), weight of 1000 grains (48.49 g) and grain yield (1,662 tons ha-1), while the seeding rate120 kg ha-1 was significantly superior to the number of grains of panicle (14.20 grains panicle-1). The results showed that fertilizer level of 160 kg K ha-1was significantly superior in most of the studied traits, such as area of flag leaf,  number of panicles (310.2 paniclem-2), number of grains (14.72 grain panicle-1), the weight of 1000 grains (52.62 g) and grain yield(1.831 ton ha-1.The interaction between seeding rate and potassium fertilization significantly affected most of the studied traits. The seeding rate achieved 140 kg ha-1 with a potassium fertilizer level of 160 completed the highest values: number of tillers (398 tillers m-2) and weight of 1000 grains (55.00 g). The interaction between the seeding rate of 120 kg ha-1with  level of fertilizer 160 kg K ha-1 had the highest significant overlap of the number of grains (17.07 grainspanicle-1).

Determine the Competitive Ability of Some Sorghum Cultivars by the Effect of Weed Control Treatments

Khubeab Yousef; Abdullateef M. Al-Kaisy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 48-58
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174580

A field experiment was carried out in 2021 during the autumn season in soil with a mixture texture in Anbar Governorate, Ramadi District in research station of college of agriculture, university of Anbar in Al-Hamidiyah region. To study the effect of the competitive ability of some sorghum cultivars in the accompanying weeds with the impact of weed control treatments, The experiment was included three hoeings (hoeing once, hoeing twice, and hoeing three times) in addition to the control treatment with three cultivars of sorghum (Lilo, Angath and Rabeh). The experiment was designed according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and in the arrangement of split plots and three replications, as the hoes were at main plots while cultivars were at subplots. The results were as follows. Data showed a significant effect of the study factors in the studied traits, the number of weeds, and their dry weight, whether three times of hand weeding gave the highest plant height (194.87 cm), 500-grain weight (19.22 g), grain yield 8.85-ton hectare-1. As for the cultivars, the cultivar recorded the highest average of the leaf area (5900 cm2 plant-1) and the percentage of protein (8.48%).

Effect of Plant Density and Propnit Herbicide on the Weeds and Grain Yield of Sorghum

Areej Al-Mohammedi; Shaker M. Saleh; Mohammed R. Ahmed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174581

A field experiment was carried out during the spring season of 2020 in the experimental field of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad - Abu Ghraib to know the effect of weed controlling broad and narrow leaf weeds and grain yield of sorghum (Inqath cultivar). Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used according to split plots at three replications. The main plots included three weed control treatments (spraying of propnit herbicide at the recommended dose of 450-500 ml dunum-1 and half recommended dose of 225-250 ml donum-1) and weedy and free weedy treatments. In contrast, the subplots included three plant densities (1.0×105, 1.5×105, and 2.0×105, plants ha-1). The results of the statistical analysis indicate that the spraying of herbicides Proponit at the recommended concentration recorded the lowest average density of broad and narrow leaves (7.89 7 and 2.22 plants m-2) and the highest percentage of controlling broad and narrow leaves (72.17 88.03%) and the highest percentage of inhibiting the dry weight (75.33%). As for the effect of plant density, the results indicated that there was a significant effect of plant density in most of the studied traits, where the plant density recorded 200 thousand plants ha-1, the lowest numerical density for broad leaves and the percentage of their control (4.79 plants m-2 and 69.74%), and the plant density recorded 100 thousand The plant ha-1 had the highest inhibition rate of 63.53%. The plant density exceeded 150 thousand plants ha-1, and the highest grain yield was 6.03 tons ha-1. The different combinations between the two studied factors significantly affected most of the studied traits.

Effect of Planting Dates on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Six Bread Wheat Cultivars

Rawia Mahmud; Zeyad A. Abdulhamed; Mohammed A.M. Alogaidi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174582

The study was conducted during the season 2020-2021 in Abu Ghraib Field Crops  Research  Station / Agricultural Research Office using six varieties of beard wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) (Ebaa 99, Abu Ghraib 3, Babel 113, Booth 10, Baghdad 1 and Al-Rasheed) to know the effects of three planting dates (15 Nov., 1 Dec. and 15 Dec.) in growth yield and its components characteristics. The study was carried out using the split-plot design in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The main plots included planting dates, and the secondary plots included the varieties. The planting date (1 Dec.) recorded the highest grain yield of 5.88 tons.ha-1 and did not differ significantly from (15 Dec), while the planting date of (15 Nov.) which gave the lowest grain yield of 5.33 tons.ha-1.  There were significant differences between varieties. Baghdad1give the highest value of grain yield, 6.26 tons.ha-1, 16.96 tons.ha-1, while  Babel113 give the highest value weight of 1000 grains 48 .78g.  Al-Rashid cultivar recorded the lowest value of grain yield, grain filling period, 1000-grain weight, and harvest index amounted to 4.93 tons.ha-1, 45.55 days, 43.67 g, and 31.45%, respectively. The interaction between the varieties and planting dates was significant, as Abu Ghraib3, planted on 1 Dec., gave the highest grain yield, 6.94 tons.ha-1 is significantly superior to the cultivars planted at different dates, giving less than 5.50 tons.ha-1

Effect of Soil Management and Its Texture on Aggregate Stability Parameters and Wetting Rate

Dakhil R. Nedawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 79-89
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174583

The present study was carried out to evaluate the soil management and soil texture on the structure parameters and soil water wetting rate. Six soil samples of 0-30 cm depth were selected from three different sites in the texture of Clay, loam and Sandy loam in Basra Governorate (Abi Al-Khasib, Madinah and Zubair). Three samples represented the treatment of soil management (soil cultivated with alfalfa crop for 7 years respectively). The other three samples were from the same sites for uncultivated soil (bare soil), with three replicates for each sample. Soil organic matter content, bulk density, mean weight diameter, aggregate stability percentage and water wetting rate were measured. The results showed that the soil management factor had a highly significant effect in raising the values ​​of OM, MWD and WSA%. It was as a general average of 56.337 gm.Kg-1, 0.893 mm,71.33%, respectively, and on the other hand, soil management led to a decrease in the values ​​of 𝛒𝐛 (1.38 Mgm.Kg-1) and WR (0.2522 cm33gm-1 min-1), and its rise in uncultivated soil of 1.51 Mgm.Kg-1, 0.3989 cm33gm-1 min-1, respectively. While the soil texture factor effect that the clay texture had the highest values ​​as the average of OM (34.71 gm.Kg-1), MWD (0.8 mm) and WSA (62.67%), followed by loam and sandy loam, respectively. While a decrease in the values ​​of 𝛒𝐛 (1.325 Mgm.Kg-1 ) and WR (0.265 cm33gm-1 min-1) in Clay soil with a significant difference compared to loam and sandy loam soil, and the interaction between the soil management factor and the increase in its content of silt and clay led to an improvement the soil properties.

THE CERAMIC INDUSTRY IN IRAQ:THE REALITY AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT WITH RE FERENCE TO ANBAR GOVCRNORATE

Saeed Ali Al-Ubeidy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 57-70

The Ceramic industry is one of the constructional industries that contribute to the development of the
construction sector. The quick scan of the Iraqi market shows that there are large quantities of ceramic products
of different types and specifications of different measurements. It shows too that the demand continues to
increase, particularly in recent years due to the reconstruction and the high level of per capita income. Iraq is one
of the oldest manufacturers of ceramic products, but that the Iraqi state did not pay attention to the industry
though a large proportion of the raw materials needed for production are available locally in very large quantities
and better qualities of the world as well as the availability of skilled manpower in this field. It is worth
mentioning that the Anbar province has three plants (Sanitary ware, Wall Tiles, Floor Tiles) for the production of
ceramic materials founded before the occupation. These plants, owned by the General Company for Glass and
Ceramics in Ramadi, are the only plants in Iraq and they stopped production since 2003. It is concluded that
Iraqis full ofmany of themineralsand raw materials, which are concentratedmostly inAnbar provinceand
representthe basicbackboneofthe ceramic industryin the province. But the results ofestimatingdemand show that
there isa cleardeficitin the production ofceramicmaterialsto meetthe threetypes ofincreasing demand for
thesematerials.Thedomestic demand forsanitary wareandWalls andFloors Tiles for the year 2013was (16,357)
tons (11,546,160) m 2(15,394,880) m 2, respectively, which meansthat theproduction capacitiesavailable forthe
threeplantscover only(27.5%) (10.5%), (6.5%). While in theyear 2023, the percentage of the production ofthe
threelaboratoriesofdomestic demandis(sanitary ware, 9.21%), (Tiles walls, 8.4%) and (Tiles floors, 5.2%). So,
the study is encouraging for the rehabilitation ofthe production ofceramicprojectsin the province ofAnbar, as
well asthe establishment ofnew projects that have the potentialto bridge theshortfallin the demand forthisproduct.
The results ofthe application of value criteria show that the three projects are economically useful, but the Wall
Tiles project is more useful than the other two projects. In addition, the three projects are not substitutes for they
are all urgently needed, but in case of the failure of funding the rehabilitation of all the plants, so it is preferable
to start with the Wall Tiles plant.

EVALUATION OF THE LOCAL CLIMATE OF AL-RAMADI CITY ACCORDING TO THE HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT AND THE ROLE OF GREEN LANDS TO IMPROVE IT

Hmood G. Khaleefa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 104-114

Nowadays, there is an urgent necessity for the expanding in the green areas existed inside the cities to its role for improving the local climate and increasing its efficiency. So it lead to identify the concept of the thermal comfort and the determinants elements. Private climate was assessed according to thermal comfort requirements and investigated how it is suitable to the people who lived in the city and to show the role of these green areas for improving the local climate and increasing its efficiency. That determinants were indicated and discussed precisely. From most important results, It could be concluded that research derived:
1- The green areas can be considered as an element that motivated to balance the ecosystem inside city environmentally, healthily, beautifully, from its effect on temperature sun radiation and its control on wind speed, humidity%, in addition to its role on lessening the pollution and noise .
2- Reduced strategical importance and not realizing the importance of these green areas inside the city and the weave dealing with the social, environmental and climate elements which lead to prevent the city and its people from advantages of green areas. Thus, it could be recommended that green areas have to be increased inside city and protect them from wrongdoers. Furthermore, this study could be as trigger to treat dust storm in Iraq.

SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTENT IN LEAFLETS OF DATE PALM Phoenix dactilyfera L . IN THE WESTERN DESERT, IRAQ

Ayad W.AL-SHAHWANI

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 51-56

Study was conducted in the western desert (south east of Al-Ramadi city) to shed light on drought tolerance,
twelve of a number of already establishment field of Phoenix dactilyfera L. ( Zahde) trees which are used in this
study. Through out the best 8 years half of the trees was being irrigated regularly while the other half irrigation
was stopped two years period to the start of the experiment and contained to the end of it. Measurements on the
leaf water potential and water loss were taken during the day hours (from dawn to sunset) for several days.
Seasonal diurnal changes in total carbohydrates and other phenotypic characteristics, N and K percentage were
recorded. Dunces Multiple Range was used to separate the means at 0.5% probabilities. Changes in water
potential values, water loss, total carbohydrates, N and K percentage depended largely on irrigation vs. nonirrigation
and seasons, beside the nutrient elements were in low level in summer specially in leaflets of nonirrigation
date palms

EVALUATION OF SOME CARAWAY CULTIVARS PERFORMANCE USING TERNARY PLOT AND AMMI BIPLOT TECHNIQUE

Ali F.Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-91

Adaptability of Plant species (crops) cultivars could be characterized using their performance via certain trait over given environment. Thus, multi methods were applied to investigate this adaptability ofv10 cultiraj from caraway. Therefore, ternary plot conducted out at first time in middleeast especially in Iraq to test ten cultivars of caraway adaptation via carvone% and its yield (kg.ha-1) across two locations, Fallujah and Ramadi for two successive seasons, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 to become four environments. AMMI biplot laid out to support ternary plot. Past software used to construct ternary plot graphs. Also cropstat 7.2 software to extract cultivars and envirronments biplots. Results reveald that ternary plot method sorted cutlivars into three categories relied on carvone% viz non-adaptable cultivars included G4. While the other two categories involved cultivars those had two behavors once adaptable again non-adaptable that located on straight line between Ibottom and Itop the last one included cultivars that once behad near to Itop again to Imiddle that located on mid of triangle. According to carvone yield, G3 is semi-adaptable across four environments, whereas, AMMI Biplot precisely showed that G3 and G7 were most adaptable over most evnvironments. Thus, G7 was the most adaptable genotype.

RESPONSE OF LETTUCE YIELD ( Lactuca sativus L. cv. Paris Island) TO MULCHING AND SPRAYING WITH LICORICE AND ALGAMIX EXTRACTS

Abd aljabar I.AL-Hubaity

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 147-157

The study was conducted during the growing season 2007-2008 to investigate the effect of soil mulching with
black polyethylene and foliar application of some natural plant extracts , i.e., Licorice at concentrations of ( 0.0 ,
1.5 and 3.0 gl-1) and seaweed extract " Algamix " from the marine algae Ascophyllum nodosum at concentrations
of ( 0.0 , 1.0 , 2.0 and 3.0 cm3 l-1 ) . Licorice extracts were sprayed 4 times (monthly intervals ) , while Algamix
was sprayed 7 times during the experiment (two weeks intervals) .
The treatments were arranged within split plots in a factorial R.C.B. Design, Planting methods were considered
as the main plots and the interactions between licorice and seaweed extracts were arranges in subplots with three
replications for each treatment . The results showed that mulching method with foliar spraying of Licorice and
Algamix extracts at concentrations of 3.0 gl-1 , 3.0 cm3l -1 respectively was superior significantly in their effects
on the vegetative growth , i.e., weight of fresh stem , stem length , fresh and dry weight of plant leaves without
stem. Increasing the head weight and total yield plant-1 by application of soil mulching with foliar spraying of
Licorice and Algamix. Significant increase was occurred in nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium percentages of
plant leaves as a result of mulching with high concentrations of Licorice and Algamix extracts. Existence of
high positive correlations between the total yield plant-1 with all studied traits with exception in flowering %.
Head weight and leaf area distinguished with highest direct effect on the total yield per plant, whereas, leaf area
and plant length had a highest indirect effects on the yield through path of head weight trait.

ANEW RECORD & TAXONOMIC TREATMENT OF THE SPECIES Silene macrodonta Boiss. OF THE FAMILY CARYOPHYLLACEAE IN IRAQ

Mohammad Othman Musa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 104-110

تم تسجیل النوع S. macrodonta لأول مرة فی العراق ، خلال الجولات الحقلیة فی المنطقة الصحراویة – مقاطعة الصحراء الغربیة ، وبالتحدید فی وادی صواب قرب الحدود العراقیة – السوریة ، خلال فصل الربیع لعامی 2006 و 2007 . لقد تم تشخیص النوع ومعاملته تصنیفیاً مع وصف مظهری مشفوعاً بالرسومات التخطیطیة ، وخارطة انتشار النوع . لقد اودعت العینات النباتیة لدى المعشب الوطنی العراقی بالارقام 57931 و 57932 و 57933 ، ومعشب جامعة الانبار بالارقام 1526 و 1527 و 1528 .

RESPONSE OF Sorghum bicolor L.Moench TO NITROGEN FERTILIZER

Mahmood A. Salama

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-17

أجریت تجربه فی الموسم الربیعی 2005 فی منطقة الصوفیه ( شرق الرمادی ) فی تربه مزیجیه بهدف معرفة إستجابة محصول الذرة البیضاء للنایتروجین . إختیر لهذا الغرض ترکیبین وراثیین ( محلی ،إنقاذ ) تحت تأثیر أربعة مستویات من النایتروجین ( 80 ، 120 ، 160 ، 20 ) کغم N / هکتار ، وضعت بترتیب الألواح المنشقه ضمن تصمیم القطاعات العشوائیه وبثلاثة مکررات . زرع الصنفان فی الأسبوع الأول من شهر نیسان بطریقة الخطوط داخل ألواح وبمسافة زراعه ( 50 x 15 ) سم . تفوق الصنف ( إنقاذ) فی کل من الصفات ( عدد اوراق النبات ، الوزن الجاف للنبات ، حاصل الحبوب ) . بینما تفوق الصنف المحلی فی صفة إرتفاع النبات ، ولم یختلفا معنویا فی صفة وزن الحبة . أدت إضافة النایتروجین بشکل متزاید إلى زیادة معنویة فی کل من ( إرتفاع النبات ، وزن 300 حبه ، الوزن الجاف للنبات ، حاصل الحبوب ) ، إذا أعطى مستوى النایتروجین 200 کغم N / هکتار أعلى معدل لهذه الصفات ( 180.5 سم ، 6.7 غم ، 159.8 غم ، 8.3 طن / هکتار) على التوالی . نستنتج أن الذره البیضاء تستجیب لإضافة النایتروجین وبمعدلات إضافه عالیه .

THE REALITY OF DRAINAGES IN RAMADI DISTRICT & IT'S ROLE IN COMBATE DESERTIFICATION(( A STUDY IN AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY DURING 1980 – 2000 ))

Lateef M. HadeedAl-Dulaimy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 18-32

یتکون المشروع من ست مراحل, أربع منها قائمة على أساس الاستصلاح الکلی, والمرحلتان الأخیرتان قائمة على الاستصلاح الجزئی وکل مرحلة تضم عدداً من المقاطعات الزراعیة. وان الدافع الأول لإنشاء المشروع هو بهدف استصلاح التربة من الأملاح وتحسین إنتاجیة الأراضی. ولعملیة الاستصلاح أهمیة کبیرة تبدو من خلال أهدافها الاقتصادیة والاجتماعیة – المذکورة فی هذا البحث لاحقاً – ولقد أدت هذه المبازل مهمة کبیرة على مستوى مکافحة الملوحة, ظهرت من خلال الحد من انتشار ظاهرة الأسباخ فی الأراضی الزراعیة, زیادة على تحسین إنتاجیة الأرض, وارتفاع مستوى معدل الغلات الزراعیة التی اعتمد البحث إحصاءات رسمیة فی دراستها ومقارنة ذلک خلال مرحلتی ما قبل الاستصلاح وما بعده. تبلغ المسافة الطولیة لهذا المشروع 90 کم على جانبی نهر الفرات, وهو یضم 86,45 کم من المبازل الرئیسیة, وکذلک 314,31 کم من المبازل الفرعیة والثانویة, أما المبازل المجمعة فیبلغ طولها 304,08 کم, فیحین یبلغ طول المبازل المغطاة 790 کم. أما على مستوى الاستصلاح, فان نسبة الأراضی المستصلحة تبلغ 76,84%, فی حین تبلغ نسبة الأراضی غیر المستصلحة 23,16% وذلک من مجموع المساحة الکلیة الخاضعة لهذا المشروع البالغة 159000 دونم. وتبدو أهمیة المبازل فی مکافحة التصحر من خلال الحد من انتشار الملوحة التی ترتب علیها ارتفاع المعدل العام للغلات الزراعیة من 548,18 کغم, إلى معدل عام لهذه الغلات بلغ 1315,45 کغم وفقاً للإحصاءات الرسمیة التیاعتمدها البحث.

EVALUATION OF SOME CARAWAY CULTIVARS PERFORMANCE USING TERNARY PLOT AND AMMI BIPLOT TECHNIQUE

Ali F.Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 84-91

Adaptability of Plant species (crops) cultivars could be characterized using their performance via certain trait over given environment. Thus, multi methods were applied to investigate this adaptability ofv10 cultiraj from caraway. Therefore, ternary plot conducted out at first time in middleeast especially in Iraq to test ten cultivars of caraway adaptation via carvone% and its yield (kg.ha-1) across two locations, Fallujah and Ramadi for two successive seasons, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 to become four environments. AMMI biplot laid out to support ternary plot. Past software used to construct ternary plot graphs. Also cropstat 7.2 software to extract cultivars and envirronments biplots. Results reveald that ternary plot method sorted cutlivars into three categories relied on carvone% viz non-adaptable cultivars included G4. While the other two categories involved cultivars those had two behavors once adaptable again non-adaptable that located on straight line between Ibottom and Itop the last one included cultivars that once behad near to Itop again to Imiddle that located on mid of triangle. According to carvone yield, G3 is semi-adaptable across four environments, whereas, AMMI Biplot precisely showed that G3 and G7 were most adaptable over most evnvironments. Thus, G7 was the most adaptable genotype.

AGGRAVATION OF DESERTIFICATION IN AGRICULTURAL LANDS AT AL-ANBAR GOVERNORATE . GEOGRAPHICAL ANALYTICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY

Latif M . H AL Dulaimi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 51-61

Abstract:

AL-Anbar Governorate considered as agricultural area in spite of desert area expansion , the governorate was dominated by the desert , these deserted areas has areas of agricultural land , and agood supply of groundwater , these areas are promising for the future .
The farming activities and food production is concentrated in Euphrates river valley in the flood plain in the north and the sedimentation plain in the south . these two plains are the main activity symptoms of man and natural habitat which are the irrigated farming areas . The main problems that threat to these productive lands is desertification because of weak agricultural strategy and ignoring the needs of these lands , this lead to salinity and deteriorated productivity

Publisher: University of Anbar

Email:  ijds@uoanbar.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Pro. Dr. Saifuldeen A. Salim

Managing Editor: Assist. Prof. Dr. Shamil I. Neamah

Print ISSN: 1994-7801

Online ISSN: 2664-9454

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