Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter 2021


COMBINING ABILITY AND GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR CYTOPLASMIC MALE STERILITY LINES IN Zea mays L

Mohammed A.M. Alogaidi; Zeyad A. Abdul hamed; Abed M. Dhahi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 1-10

This study aimed to evaluate The number of pure inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) carried out for two seasons (spring and autumn) of 2019 in the fields of the research station/ agricultural research station in Abo Gharib. Four cytoplasmic male sterile inbred lines (A1, A3, A5 and A7) with their maintenance lines and four genetically fertile inbreds ( Inb2, HZ3, R5 and 18) in addition to the control hybrid (Nahrain) were used. Single hybrids were produced according to line × tester system. All genotypes were planted using randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replicates, to analyses general and specific combining ability and estimate the effects and estimation some genetic Parameters for number days of sowing to 50%, leaf area, rows number per ear, kernels number per row , 500-kernel weight and grain yield per plant. Comparison results showed that inbred lines and their single crosses presented significant differences for all studied traits. The hybrids (A1×HZ3), (A1×R5) and (A3×HZ3) scored highest yield (175.1, 172.2 and 172.1) respectively. Obtained results also recorded significant influence of GCA and SCA in most studied traits, And the values of GCA/SCA was less than one, And the percentage of broad sense heritability was high for all traits, while it was low for the narrow sense heritability for all traits as well, which led to a higher average degree of dominance than the correct one, which indicates that the traits were under the influence of the dominance and over dominance of genes, which indicates that the possibility of using superior parents in their speculations to derive Single hybrids with special combinability of field characteristics, yield and components.

RESPOSE OF OLIVE TREES C.V CHEMLALI TO FOLIAR NUTRITION WITH BORIC ACID AND SEAWEED EXTRACT IN SOME VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL CONTENT

Omer S. S. Al-Khafaji; Hameed H. Al-Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 11-28

This study was carried out at an olive farm located in Habbaniyah, 30 km east of Ramadi, the center of Anbar province in Iraq during the 2020 growing season to study the effect of foliar spraying with boric acid with three concentration levels 0, 0.5 and 1.0 g L-1 and seaweed extract under the trade name Alga600 with four concentration 0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g L-1 and their interaction in some of the vegetative and chemical characteristics of the olive c.v "Chemlali". The trees were sprayed till run-off on three dates. The first spray in the beginning of March before flowering and fruit set, the second spray after 1 month from the first spray after flowering and before the fruit set and the third spray after 2 month from the first spray after flowering and fruit set. The results showed the positive effect of foliar spraying with boric acid on all the vegetative growth characteristics of the olives, where the concentration 1.0 g L-1 significantly exceeded the rate of increase in branch length, number of leaves, total chlorophyll, dry matter ratio, carbohydrates, nitrogen, C/N and boron in the leaves compared with the control treatment (distilled water), spraying with seaweed extract at a concentration 2.0 g L-1 significantly outperformed most of the traits compared to the comparison treatment , while the interaction treatment (1 g L-1 Boric Acid + 2 g L-1 seaweed extract) was superior in the rate of increase of branch length and total chlorophyll, the percentage of leaves dry weight, total carbohydrates, leaves content of nitrogen and boron, compared to the comparison treatment, (1.0 g L-1 Boric Acid + 1.0 g L-1 seaweed extract) was significantly superior in the number of leaves compared to the treatment (0.5 g L-1 Boric acid + 1.0 g L-1 seaweed extract), which gave the lowest value in the number of leaves in olives.

EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID AND PHOSPHOROUS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF ONIONS IRRIGATION WITH DIFFERENT SALINE WATE

Saad J. H. Saleh; Fawzi M.A. Alhamadany; Yas K.H. Alhadithy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 29-41

The study was carried out at the College of Agriculture University of Anbar during the spring season of 2018, the study conducted by using water for irrigation with different electrical conductivity (1.1, 3.00, 5.00, and 7.00 Decimeters M-1) which marked as W1, W2, W3, and W4. This study has included three experiments. The field experiment used water for irrigation with different electrical conductivity (1.1, 3.00, 5.00, and 7.00 Decimeters M-1) and three levels of humic acids were used: (0, 20 and 40 kg.H-1) H0, H1 and H2. Also, there are three levels of mono superphosphate fertilizer were used: P0, P1, and P2 (0, 100, and 150 kg. E-1). to estimate of heterosis on some growth properties of onion yield. The results showed decrease for plant's height when the salinity of irrigation water increased. while the leaf’s area, and the stem diameter increased by decreasing salinity at the level 7 decimeters M-1, the leaf's area, and the stem diameter increased increasing by adding humic acid levels and phosphate fertilizer levels. The results showed decrease in the total yield, by increase in the salinity of irrigation water from 1.1 to 7 decimeters M-1, while the total yield was increased by adding humic acid and phosphate fertilizer levels.

SPATIAL SUITABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE IRAQI HAMMAD BASIN USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATIOM SYSTEMS (G.I.S) AND REMOTE SENSING (R.S)

Abdul Hameed W. A. B. Al-Issawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 42-67

The research included that there are large areas whose spatial advantages can be invested in agricultural activity through the spatial suitability of the two elements (water and soil) by following scientific methods and modern technologies that are compatible with the nature of desert environment, in a way that contributes to achieving development, stability and achieving justice. Research is based on modeling (12) randomly selected samples of water and soil which their locations were determined by using (GPS) and examined laboratory. Their results revealed that there is a clear variation in the spatial characteristics according to the nature of the area. The theory of spatial modeling was applied to it by adopting (G.I.S. and remote sensing techniques R.C.) and producing cartographic models that represent the suitability for the characteristics of each element, and the merging of the characteristics in two models representing (water and soil) to reach a final model in which the area was divided into regions (poor, medium, Convenient, and very convenient), according to the advantages of each one.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USES IN THE KIRKUK IRRIGATION PROJECT USING G.I.S AND R.S

Murad I. Ahmed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 68-92

The agricultural development process is based on providing irrigation water. That is why the Kirkuk irrigation project is one of the important irrigation projects in the region, as the total area of the project is(6318195.978) dunums and the area of agricultural land within the project (2283001.947) dunums, and this is why it is important in agricultural activity. The research aims to present a scientific method in merging the methods of data integration and statistical treatment by applying criteria and weights in order to analyze them spatially, which are used with the techniques of geographic information systems and remote sensing through the detection and analysis of changes in land cover patterns during the two years of the study (1995 and 2016) were use For this purpose, satellite images captured by the (Land Sat7 ETM) multi- Spectra captured on 6/4/1995 and 5/4/2016, all the way to the detection of spatial variance models, agricultural land uses using (Cluster Analysis Morans) which is one of the tools of spatial statistical analysis in geographic information systems, and cartographic models were built reflects the nature of the geographical distribution of agricultural land uses, its spatial variation and its change during the study period, then assessing the adequacy and spatial viability of the land in the area and finally the most important findings of the research.

THE EFFECT OF WATER REQUIREMENTS IN THE CULTIVATION AND PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLE CROPS (ANALYTICAL STUDY IN AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY)

Kawthar N. Abbas

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 93-115

The effect of water requirements in the cultivation and production of some vegetable crops (summer and winter) was studied in order to determine the importance of water during the different stages of growth in order to carry out the vital processes, as most of the physiological processes within plants in general are affected directly or indirectly by the presence of water, the research took Abu Ghraib district as a model for the study, as it is one of the important districts that are famous for cultivating vegetable crops that feed the markets of Baghdad , and the research has reached To the fact that moderate soil moisture is important in the germination of crops, as its decrease negatively affects the failure to germination, the failure to elongate peacocks, or the production of incomplete fruits. As for the increase of that moisture, it causes great damage to the vegetable crops, such as their exposure to diseases and pests, as is the case with air humidity, as its decrease leads to Drought and falling branches and leaves, as well as its effect on the increase in the process of evaporation - transpiration, which leads to the withering of crops. As for its height, it leads to the disruption of the pollination process. It was also found that some vegetable crops are well cultivated in high air humidity, such as lettuce, spinach and leafy greens, and that some of them are well cultivated in low humidity. Such as watermelon and watermelon, and it was found that the decrease or high of the fallen rain or irrigation water negatively affected the growth and germination of vegetable crops.

THE RATIONALE FOR ADOPTION OF THE CONSERVATION AGRICUITURE SYSTEM TO COMBAT DESRETIFICATION IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE IN IRAQ

Ayad A. M. Alheeti; Nihad M. Abood; Rashid M. Theer

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 116-131

Iraq faces major environmental challenges because of its geographical location in the arid and semi aired areas that of desertification sensitivity and the global climate changes, especially in its central and southern parts as in the Al Anbar governorate. According to the UN reports, %92 of Iraq's area is in one way or another exposed to desertification as represented by dust storms, dune movement, deterioration of natural vegetationو droughts, and waterlogging and salinization of the soil. The desertification areas in Al Anbar estimates by %77 of the total area of 137,808 km2 of the governorate. Global attention in combating desertification has involved the implementation of preventive measures to halt and reduce desertification. The most effective way to combat desertification has been found through the introduction of agricultural systems that ensure the conservation of agricultural, natural resources (soil and water) and goes in line with the emerging environmental changes. This article presents the justifications for proposing a conservative agriculture system as an ideal solution to combat desertification in the Al Anbar governorate. The results of the research on the applications of conservation agriculture indicate that the conservation agriculture application leads to reduce soil erosion, mitigate droughts and scarcity of water resources, increase water usage efficiency, and increase productivity and economic return. These findings urge investing in the advantages of the conservation agriculture system to combat the desertification phenomena in the Al Anbar governorate. What should be emphasized in this context, however, is the need to double efforts and provide official support from the relevant authorities.

MEDICAL SIIGNIFICANCE OF SOME CULTIVATED SPECIES AND THEIR INVESTMENT ACPECTS IN ANBAR PROVINCE

Anaam M. Ayid; Sinan L. Mahmood; Sami M. Awadh; Mohammed A. Hamad; Ali F. Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 132-149

The importance of medicinal plants at the local level has increased in recent times, in both medical and economic terms, and due to the great importance of alternative medicine, it has attracted researchers to study in this area to dispense with chemical treatments and their side effects, this research has dealt with a (Climate, soil, water sources, and vegetation) and human characteristics (population number, age groups and labor force). The second topic dealt with studying the geographical distribution of medicinal plants in Anbar Governorate (desert plants, swamp plants, tree plants, weeds and crops). Furthermore, second chapter studies the appropriate geographical environment for medicinal plants in the governorate and the cultivation seasons for these plants, and the third topic included the medicinal importance of some plants grown in Anbar Governorate in terms of therapeutic and economic terms and the importance of developing this agriculture study of several studies, the first of which is a study of the geography of the governorate in terms of location. And space, boundaries and natural properties. The study focused on update of medicinal plants cultivation and using the condensed agriculture. Moreover, some medicinal plants could tolerate the environmental stresses viz., colocynth and datura. It found that the most cultivated important medicinal and aromatic plants are Baraka seed, dill, fenugreek, fennel, cumin and aniseed.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROPERTIES AND ANALYSIS OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER WITHIN ANBAR GOVERNORATE IN IRAQ: A REVIEW

Bashar A. Mahmood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 150-163

Euphrates River is the primary source of water in Anbar province. It provides the cities that passed with drinking, agricultural and industrial water, in addition to being the downstream of sewage and wastewater after treatment. Anbar province, and consequently the water of the Euphrates River, has been affected by climate and environmental changes resulting from the military operations, which have become an obsession for citizens and decision-makers in the province. This obsession became the motivation for conducting the necessary physical, chemical and biological measurements to identify the environmental characteristics of the Euphrates river due to the presence of many sources of pollution of rivers water and for the purpose of making sure that it is suitable for human uses, since its effects will be serious and direct on humans and the environment. The review article includes a comprehensive study of water quality in Anbar province, as well as a review of previous researches in this field to know and to improve the future of water in the province. As the specialists unanimously agreed that, the future crisis in the region is a water crisis. Also, the review included an analysis of physical, chemical, and biological measurements, and a comparison of results with Iraqi and international standard limits was made. Data were organized and the results were analyzed. Results were of importance, and important environmental recommendations were reached regarding Euphrates river within its flow stream and the time effect on it.

NATURAL REASONS CAUSING SOIL SALINITY AND ITS IMPACT OF PLANT PRODUCTION IN ALI-ALGHARBI DISTRICT

Kahdem A. H. Al-Jassim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2021, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 164-186

Salinity is one of the major problems of Iraqi agriculture, especially in central and southern Iraq, including the study area (Ali Al-Gharbi district) in Missan province, as this problem is considered one of the problems impeding agricultural production, as most agricultural lands are subject to different degrees of salinity due to Natural and human conditions such as the prevailing climatic conditions represented by high temperatures and evaporation, the Topography and the vegetation and the salinity of irrigation water in addition to the lack of effective drainage and drainage networks and high levels of ground water and poor management of soil and water and other reasons that lead to soil salinity. The effect of soil salts on plants begins with the accumulation of a large amount of salts in the soil. Boring it becomes difficult for plants to absorb water, and these salts must be kept away from the plant roots ( Rhizosphere ) in the region by adding more water during the washing process, which reduces their forgetting in the soil and the soil becomes effective for agricultural production. The quality of irrigation water is also an important factor that helps to salinize the agricultural soil, as this water contains different quantities and types of salts, it is natural that part of it will be left on the agricultural land due to the continuous use of it, especially in irrigated agricultural areas and under the conditions of dry climate and semi Dry, when the amount of salts added to the soil through irrigation water exceeds the amount of salts removed by natural or artificial puncture and by crops being harvested, this leads to the accumulation of salts in the soil in the future.