Abbas, M. S., Sh. Soilman, A.. Moustafa, Z. R & Abd El-Reheem, K. M. (2018). Effect of some soil amendments on yield and quality traits of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under water stress in sandy soil. Egyption Journal of Agronomy, 40(1), 75-88.
Abdeen, S. A. (2020). Biochar, bentonite and potassium humate effects on saline soil properties and nitrogen loss. ARRB, 35(12),45-55.
Abed, Y.M., Abdul-Ratha, H. A. & Hadown, H.A. (2016). Effect of biofertilizer produced from local isolates of Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens on some soil characteristics and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Iraqi Journal of Agricultural .Sciences, 47(6), 1413 – 1422.
Ajayi, A.E., & Horn, R.(2016). Comparing the potentials of clay and biochar in improving water retention and mechanical resilience of sandy soil. International Agrophyicss, 30,391-399.
Al-Hayani, A.S.J.Z., Al-Hassoon, S. N. H. & Al-Obaidi, M.A.J. (2022). Adsorption of copper on surfaces of feasible materials (plant waste, sludge and bentonite metal). Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(3),654 – 659.
Ali, N. S., Rahi, H. S. & Shaker A. A., (2014). Soil fertility. Dar Al- Kotob Alamya. Amman. Jordon. pp: 307.
Al-Janabi, H. Y.(2016). Applied land reclamation. Dep. of the Univ. Printing Press, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Qasim Green University, Babylon, Iraq. pp: 245.
Al-Kinani, D. K. S., & Jarallah, A. K. A. (2021). Effect of bentonite and compost applications in some chemical properties of soil, growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in desert soil. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(6),9497-9513.
Al-Kinani, D. K. S., & Jarallah, A. K. A. (2022). Effect of bentonite and compost application in some macro nutrients availability and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in desert soil. Iraqi Journal of Soil Science, 22(1) , 134 – 146.
Al-Saadi, M.M., & Al-Wardy, M.M. (2019). Influence of sludge compost on soil properties and tomato plant uptake of metals. American Journal of Biomedical Sciences and Research, 2(2), 86-92.
Al-Tameemi, H. J., &. Jaber, H .M. (2019). Effect of biochar on some physical properties of two different textured soil. Merit Research Journal Agricultural Sciences and Soil Scencesi, 7(3),43-52.
Biederman, L. A., & Harpole, W. S. (2013). Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling. A meta – analysis. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 5,202-214.
Ding, Z.H., Wan, Y.S., Hu, X., Wang, S.S., Zimmerman, A.R.& Gao, B.(2016).Sorptionof lend and methylene blue onto hickory biochars from different pyrolysis temperatures: Important of physiochemical properties. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 37,261-267
Eldardiry, E.I., & Abd El-Hady, M. (2015).Effect of different soil conditioners application on some soil characteristics and plant growth. I. Soil moisture distribution, barley yield and water use efficiency. Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci., 4(7),361-367.
El-Etr, W.M., & Hassan, W. Z. (2017). A study of some sandy soil characteristics treated with combinations of bentonite and vinasse which reflected on productivity of pea crop. J. Soil Sci. and Agric. Eng., Mansoura Univ., 8(10), 545-551.
Fagaria, N.K.(2005). Agronomy and physiology of tropical cover crops. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 30,1287-1339.
Gul, S.,J.K. Whalen, Thomas, B.W., Sochdeva, V. & Deng, H.Y. (2015). Physico-chemical properties and microbial responses in biochar- amended soils: Mechanisms and future directions. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 206,46-59.
Hassan, A. Z. A., & Mahmoud, A. M. (2013). The combined effect of bentonite and natural zeolite on sandy soil properties and productivity of some crops. Topclass Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(3), 22-28.
Huang, L.Q.,C. Fu, Li, T.Z. Yan, B. Wu, Y. & Zhang, L. (2020).Advances in research on effects of biochar on soil nitrogen and phosphorus. Earth and Environmental Science, 424,1-8.
Hui, D. 2021. Effect of biochar application on soil properties, plant biomass production and soil greenhouse gas emissions: A mini-Review. Agricultural Sciences,12,213 -236.
Iskander, A. L., Khald, & Sheta, A. S. (2011). Zinc and manganese sorption behavior by natural zeo E.M lite and bentonite. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 56, 43-48.
Jackson, M.L.(1958).Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall. Inc. Engelwood. Cliffs N.J.
Jiang, J., Yuan, M. Xu, R. & Bish, D.L. (2015).Mobilization of phosphate in variable-charge soils amended with biochars derived from crop straws. Soil and Tillage Research, 146,139-147.
Kizito, S., Luo, H., Lu, J., Bah, H. & Dong, R. (2019).Role of nutrient-enriched biochar as a soil amendment during maize growth: Exploring practical. alternatives to recycle agricultural residuals and to reduce chemical fertilizer demond. Sustainability 11, 3211.
Lee, Y.L., Ahmad, O.H., Wahid, S.A. & AB Aziz, Z.F. (2021).Biochar tablets with and without embedded fertilizer on the soil chemical characteristics and nutrient use efficiency of Zea mays. Sustainability, 13,4878.
Li, S., Li, Z., Feng, X., Zhou, F., Wang, J. & Li, Y. (2021).Effects of biochar additions on the chemical properties, bacterial community structure and rape growth in on acid purple soil. Plant and Soil Environment, 67, 121-129.
Liu, X., Liao, J.,Song, H.,Yang, Y., Guan, C. & Zhang, Z. (2019). A biochar-based route for environmentally friendly controlled released of nitrogen: Urea-loaded biochar and bentonite composite. Science Reports, 9,9548:1-11.
Minhal, F., Ma,as, A., Hanudi,E. & Sudira,P.(2020). Improvement of the chemical properties and buffering capacity of coastal sandy soil as affected by clay and organic by-product application. Soil and Water Research, 15,93-100.
Molla, A., Ioannou, Z., Dimirrkou,A. & Mollas,S. (2014). Reduction of nitrate nitrogen from alkaline soils cultivated with maize crop using zeolite-bentonite soil amendments. International Journal Waste Resources, 4(3) , 1-4.
Nigussie, A., Endalkachew, K. Mastawesha, M. & Gebremedhin, A. (2012). Effect of biochar application on soil properties and nutrient uptake of lettuces (Lactuca sativa) grown in chromium polluted soils. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences,12(3), 369 – 376.
Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. & Kenney, D.R. (1982). Methods of soil analysis part (2). 2nd ed. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society Argon Madison, Wisconsin. pp: 1159.
Sacchi, A.(2010).Improving the cation retention capacity of tropical soil using high activity clays. James Cook University, Australia.
Salih, R.O .(2000). Effect of bentonite addition on some properties of Zubair sandy soil and growth of onion. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(1),561-566.
Santos, S.R., Filho, J.F.L. Vergutz,L. & Melo., L.C.A.(2019).Biochar association with phosphate fertilizer and its influence on phosphorus use efficiency by maize. Ciencia , Agrotecnologia, 43,1-11.
Sasmita, K.D.,A. Iswandi, A. Syaiful, Y. Sudirman, & D. Gunawan. (2017). Application of biochar and organic fertilizer on acid soil as growing medium for caco(Theobroma caco L.) seedling. International Journal of Sciences Basic and Applied Research, 36(5),261-273.
Semalulu, O., Magunda, M. & Mubiru, D. N. (2015). Amelioration of sandy soils in drought stricken areas through use of Ca-bentonite. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 16(2), 195-205.
Shah, T., Tariq, M. & Muhammad, D. (2021).Biochar application improves soil respiration and nitrogen mineralization in alkaline calcareous soil under two cropping systems. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 37(2),500-510.
Simansky, V., Horak, J. & Bordoloi, S. (2022).Improving the soil physical properties and relationship between soil properties in arable soils of contrasting texture enhancement using biochar substrates: Case study in Slovakia. Geoderma Regional, 28,1-15.
Steel, R. G. D., & Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw – Hill, Inc., N.Y.pp:485.
Sun, H. J., Min,J., Zhang, H.,Feng, Y., Lu, K., Shi, W., Yu,M. & Li,X.(2018).Biochar application mode influences nitrogen leaching and NH3 volatilization losses in a rice paddy soil irrigated with N-rich waste water. Environ. Technol., 39,2090-206.
Tawfiq, A. J. 2009. Improvement of sandy soil properties by using bentonite. Kufa Journal of Engineering, 1(1), 29-39.
Wyszkowski, M., Redziemska, M.& Sivitskaya, V. (2009).Effect of compost, bentonite, zeolite and calcium oxide on mineral nitrogen context in nickel contaminated soil. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 16(8),1047-1055.
Xiang, Y. Z., Deng, Q . Duan, H.L. & Guo, Y. (2017). Effects of biochar application on root traits: A meta-Analysis. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 9,1563-1572.
Yssaad, H.R., Belkhodja, M.& Chibani,A.(2011).Effect of bentonite on the sandy soil of arid regions: Study of behavior of an association of wheat and chickpea. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 5,1668-1677.
Zahra, M.B., Aftab, Z., Akhter, A. & Haider, M.S. (2021).Cumulative effect of biochar and compost on nutritional profile of soil and maize productive. J. Plant Nutr., 441664–1676.