Volume 1, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2008, Page 1-110


A NEW RECORD WITH A MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES Silene papillosa Boiss. (CARYOPHYLLACEAE) IN IRAQ .

Mohammad Othman Musa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

تم تسجیل نوع جدید ولاول مرة فی العراق هو Silene papillosa Boiss. خلال الجولات العلمیة الحقلیة فی المنطقة الجبلیة – مقاطعة جبل سنجار MJS ، وبالتحدید قرب عین کرسی خلال فصل الربیع لعامی 2005 و 2006م . تم تشخیص النوع ومعاملته تصنیفیاً مع وصف مظهری وتشریحی شامل . لقد أودعت العینات النباتیة الخاصة بالنوع المسجل لدى المعشب الوطنی العراقی بالارقام 57811 ، 57812 ، 57813 ، ومعشب جامعة الانبار بالارقام 1521 ، 1522 ، 1523.

CLIMATIC CHANGES & HISTORICAL REALITY OF DESERTIFICATION IN IRAQ & SURROUNDING AREAS DURING LATE QUATERNARY

Abed S. Al-Dulaimy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-11

Abstract:

The Iraqi territory & neighboring countries passed during geological history in many climatic variation, during which a successive periods of drought & wet conditions were seen periodically, where it's impact was reflected on geological record as seen in palynological zones (pollen-diagram) .It was found that the phenomenon of desertification was very old. The study deduced that there were many periods of drought (desertification) emerged during late quaternary period (36000Y.BP- present time ), that leads to predominance of pollens &spores of non- boreal vegetation that lived in this type of climate ( i.e Chenopodiaceae) .
At the beginning of history climatic condition play the basic role that affected the desertification phases in Mesopotamian-plain and after the old human settle the plain & make his civilization in the region he start to play an important role in increasing desertification and become the main factor affected this phenomenon in addition to the climate factors ,which played a secondary role too.

RESPONSE OF FOUR WHEAT CULTIVARS ( TRITICUM AESTIVUM L ) TO RECOMMENDED FERTILIZER TREATMENT IN FOUR SITES OF THE WESTERN IRAQI UNDER PIVOT SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Hammad Nawaf Farhan; Ashour H. Al-Karbooly; Mohammed M. Ali; Ashwaq T. Hameed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 11-19

Four applied experiments were conducted in four sites in the west desert of Iraq (Al-Anbar Area) during winter season of 2005/2006 to study the response of 4 wheat cultivars: Abu Ghraib, Sham 6, Iba 99 and Iba 95 as a main factor to the recommended fertilizers treatment (200 kg/ha DAP + 160 kg/ha Urea) and desert ecological conditions on growth and productivity grown under pivot sprinkler irrigation system from under ground water. RCBD was used with three replicates in all experiments. The results showed the following.
1) Abu Ghraib cultivar gave the higher values in the productivity and physiological characters compared with other cultivars in all sites.
2) All cultivars gave the highest yield in site 2 compared with other sites. Abu Ghraib gave the following values in this site: 530 branch/m2, 2300 gm dry weight/m2, 4310 cm2 leaf area/m2, 73 grain/spike, 35.16 gm/1000 grain, 3.5 gm/spike, 3724 grain yield kg/ha. Percentage of N, P, K in dry weight of plant was 0.613, 0.151, 0.136 respectively while percentage of protein and starch in grains were 13.35, 64.82 % respectively.
3) Sham 6 cultivar scored the second value in the productivity in this study. Abu Ghraib and Sham 6 cultivars were more able to bear desert environmental conditions than Iba 95 and Iba 99 cultivars.
4) There is benefits by investment soil and ground water in west desert of Iraq in wheat agriculture under pivot sprinkler irrigation system.
5) Development of wheat agriculture in west desert may contribute in reducing risk of desertification.

RESPONSE OF THREE SUNFLOWER GENOTYPE ( HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.) TO POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION

Abbas Abidallah Taha; Hamadah M. M. AL-Fahdawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 19-25

Abstract

Three genetic of sunflower (Euroflor,Iraqi flower , F5) were planted in Experiment (main plot) at spring season 2004 at farming of Agriculture college , AL-Anbar university .It was done on aclay loam soil . four level of Potassium fertilizers (0, 24.9 , 49.8 , 74.7 ) kg k/ha were used at sub plots to determine response growth and seeds yield of sunflower .
These factors (3x4) were input with split plot design at three replicates . seeds were planted in the second Middle of February , planting using 70 cm interrow , and 20 cm between hills , The genotype were significantly different in most of growth and seeds yield except weight of 1000 seed and oil content .
These two genetic (F5) , (Euroflor) gave high rate of yield about (5.3 , 5.2) t/ha respectively . Euroflor cultivar gave high rate of fertility percentage in seeds (94.2%) , but (Iraqi flower ) cultivar was absorption highest average of Potassium in leaves reached about (0.50%) . Application of Potassium significantly effected in all characteristics , addition (74.7 kg) k/ha gave high rates . It for all (6.1) t/ha seed yield , (77.6 gm) weight of 1000 seeds , 95.8 % fertility percentage , 0.56% Potassium in Leaves , (134.9) cm plant high , (32.5) Leaf /plant , (21.9) cm disc diameter and 39.1 % oil percentage , it can be concluded from this study that the addition of k fertilizer gave the best results concerning the characters quality and yield of sunflower genotypes under the condition of this experiment.

Role of Irrigation Method and Bitumen in Improvement of soil physical Characteristics and Yield of Corn

Bahaa A.. Al-hadeethi; Saif Al-deen A.Razaq Salim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 25-32

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the role of irrigation method and bitumen (petroleum derived product) in improvement of soil physical characteristic and yield of corn at the Gypsiferous Soil Experimental Station in Aldoor, 200 km Northeast Baghdad, Iraq. Irrigation was practiced by there methods: surface, sprinkler, and drip. Bitumen was mixed

with the upper 15 cm of soil surface at concentration of 0.5% on soil mass basis. A split-split plot in RCBD with four replicates was used in which the main plots were assigned for the irrigation treatment, subplots for the cultivation, and the sub-sub plots for bitumen treatment. Irrigation was accomplished based on evaporation of class-A pan.
In general, results indicated that the application of bitumen improved soil characteristic and increased yield. Interaction between irrigation, cultivation and bitumen increased (MWD). Values of soil bulk density increased by 1.12, 5.7 with sprinkler and drip irrigation respectively comparing with surface irrigation. Significant interaction observed between irrigation and bitumen by its effects on the values of sub surface, the heights value, and on the other hand the lowest value was 0.725 cm/hr. Infiltration rate increased under sprinkler and drip irrigation, average infiltration rate increased under circumstance use of drip, sprinkler and surface irrigation. Addition of bitumen was improved subsurface hydraulic conductivity by 102% compared with no bitumen addition. Significant decreases observed with infiltration and average infiltration rate as result of bitumen uses. On the other hand the values of average infiltration rate for cultivated, none cultivated increased under uses of drip, sprinkler and surface irrigation. Grain yield was 4.6 and 3.68 ton/ha with surface drip, and sprinkler irrigation, respectively. Grain yield was superior with the addition of bitumen by 32% compared with not bitumen application.

EVALUATION THE NATURAL VEGETATION RESOURCES AT KILOMETER 98 OASIS WEST OF IRAQ AND IT'S RELATION WITH AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION

Ali H. Al-Bayati; Abdulkarem A; Al-Alwany; Mohamed O. Moussa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 33-40

Abstract

To identify the nature of differences which were happened to natural vegetation by agricultural utilization action at kilometer 98 oasis the natural vegetation was descriped at agricultural utilized soil series 142CCE. Wherever the present species were diagnosed and ecological system was analyized by measuring the plant community properties. The results of relatively distribution study for natural vegetation were showed that perennial species formed 61.5% in comparison with Annuals species which was reached 38.5%. Alhagi maurorum formed the higher percent followed by Helianthemum aegypticum, Lagonychium farctum, shanginia bacata, Haloxylon salicornicum, Centaurea sinaica, Artemisia scoparia and Ducrosia anethifolia for the perennial species. While the Annuals species were showed the super macy for Avena barbata followed by Hordium spontanium, Salsola barysoma, Avena wiesti, and Gundelia tourneforti. The agricultural utilization and

the type of agricultural system were affected on the species percentages and its existence in this environment. when we was comparded this results with guest (1966) study, It was appeared the disappearance of many plant species from this region of Iraq, which means we needs to consolidation and checking for exist species in this important part of country with time and attempt to saving which is remain from it and returning which was lost in the future.

STUDYING The EFFECT of HUMIC ACID AND LEAVE FERTILIZER ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND GREEN ONION YIELD-ANBAR GOVERNORATE

Abdul Latteef M. Ali Al-kaisy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 41-45

نفذت تجربة حقلیة فی أحد الحقول الزراعیة التابعة لمدینة الرمادی/ محافظة الانبار وعلى ضفاف نهر الفرات للموسم الخریفی 2007 لدراسة تأثیر حامض الهیومک السائل والسماد الورقی (یونغرین ) على النمو الخضری وحاصل البصل الأخضر . تشیر نتائج الدراسة أن أضافة حامض الهیومک والسمــاد الورقی رشاً على المجموع الخضری و لمرة واحده أظهرت تفوقها معنویا فــی صفة ( طول الورقة ــ عرض الورقة ـ عدد الاوراق ــ وزن البصلة ــ وزن الحاصل الکلی) على جمیع المعاملات الأخرى حیث بلغت معدلاتها ( 69.87 ، 146.4 ، 9.3 ، 19.99 ، 20.1 ) على التوالی فی حین أظهرت معاملة المقارنة تفوقها على جمیع المعاملات الأخرى فی صفة قطر عنق البصلة حیث بلغ (11.48 ملم ).

Evaluation of Euphrates River Water and Possibility of using lands adjacent it from AL-Qaim city until AL-Baghdadi city By Laboratory Analysis and remote Sensing

Mohammad A. Al-Hamdany; Maher A. Al-Janabi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 46-64

Abstract:

This study included the recognition of physical properties (temperature, electric conductivity and turbidity), and the chemical properties (pH, TDS). The element of Na+ , K+ , Mg++, Ca++ , NH4+ , NO3- , NO2- , SO4-2 , PO4-3 , Cl- and HCO3- were calculated in the area of research which extend from AL- Qaim city to AL-Baghdadi city . The study was achieved in two different periods (winter and summer) and a comparison was done for the water quality to show its validity for human consumption of irrigation in the mentioned periods in companson with international values. The sodium adsorption rate is also determined to estimate the water validity for irrigation.


The study involved the applications of remote sensing techniques and geographic information system and the water body (bulk) was classified for studying the spectral behavior of the sampling locations, and their reflective properties.
Values did not exceed the permitted limits except ammonium and nitrate ions which rose above the normal limits in the research area and this refer to the possibility of use. The sodium adsorption ration result was being with in the approved international characters. These findings confirm the possibility of the use of treated water for drinking and farming.
The result of both space image analysis and the laboratory analysis demonstrated their utility in studying some of the physical properties of water (turbidity, depth and temperature) in addition to the ability of discovering aquatic plant, their sites, and their effect on the spectral behavior of water. The above results show also the possibility of prediction of the existence of a pollutant by the variation in the spectral reflectivity and by some pollution related indicators such as plant cover spread, the region geologic formation, the population distribution.
The direct estimation of some element such as sodium , potassium , calcium and magnesium is impossible by the space image in low concentration , while it is possible to infer on which in high concentrations by the different in density values of water , which gives indications enable in pursing the ecologic changes.
The image space showed as well that the lands which is exploited in farming is limited and it lacks the plant cover, but there is a great chance for future investment for lands in farming and population inhabitation .

STRATEGY FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT ( REGION OF DESERT PLATEAU IN IRAQ ) PLANNING MODEL

Muhammad dalaf Al-Dolymi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 64-71

Abstract:

The region of desert plateau in Iraq is the broader natural regions in Iraq and represents 60% of the total area in which natural phenomenon vary and are reflected on the existence of a variety of developmental possibilities that can be used in sevsral directions of a agricultural development, industrial or humen development, this research focuses on the potential development of desert oeses through creation of centers for the stability of the rural agricultural-industerial activity which will be the nucleus of the proposed villages to attract nomads through the provision of public and community services.
The researcher has come up with a structural outline of proposed village depending on the size of population planning standards where all the basic necessities of life, as well as economic activities adopted by the population are available, this schem was circulated to create a center to attrect developing the region of desert plateau in Iraq

وادی درنة فی صحراء الجماهیریة اللیبیة دراسة هایدرومورفومتریة

Mash; al M.Fayadh Al-Jumaily

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 72-86

Abstract

Derna Wadi is located in the northern – eastern of Libya . between the latitudes of 32° 30° to 32 50 north , and the longitudes of 22° to 22° 45 east . There are many hard formations in the studied area and geological structures that have great influences on the basin features .Derna formation and Al-Abrak formation are hard so they caused to form cliffs .Derna wadi is controlled by tectonic .
Discharge in this wadi depends on rainfall and ground water ( springs), for this reason its discharge was 400 m3/s in the period of rain fall,and it reduced into 60 L/s in the arid period (summer) in 1999.According to the natural properties of the study area ,the numerical density is 0,11 wadi /km2 (coarse texture ). the Basin circularity is 0.31 . The shap of this basin is semi rectangular .its relief ratio is 12.9 m/k and the sinuousity ratio is 1.38 ,it passes in the youth maturity . The main activity in the basin is the agriculture processes.

THE HUMAN FACTORS ROLE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS RATE DISCREPANCY OF AL-RAMADI DISTRICT COUNTRYSIDE DURING THE PERIOD (1995-2007)

Study in Agricultural Geography

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 87-100

Abstract
The area of Euphrates valley in the low plane of Al-Anbar province is considered one of the idealist regions of the agricultural production as a result of the availability of the human and natural factors for the agricultural activity. This study is concerned with the effect of the human factors upon the agricultural products in the region which belong to Al‌Ramadi District for thirteen years (1995-2007).
In spite of the content that the agricultural activity is influenced by both the human and natural elements, but with intention the natural factor is excluded and the focus is upon the role of the human farmer starting from the time of plantation till the time of the reaping. The idea of exclusion of the natural element is not the matter of decreasing their role but for their clear deep influence, because of the multi

geographical studies that take Al- Anbar province as a field of study.
The reason behind the concentration upon the role of the human elements is that these elements are still beyond the standards and measurements; but they are based on the personal freedom in the agricultural work, with the weakness of the rural consciousness and the agricultural culture, the negligence of the governmental guidance in addition to the personal experiences differences. All these reasons are a part of the human factors which cause the differences in the rate of the agricultural product at the end of the season. Five products are chosen to be ideal samples for the agricultural activity in the area. These samples are wheat, barley, sesame, compound corn, and the farm peanut that cover the activity of the two seasons( summer and winter).

HEALTH SERVICES EFFICIENCY IN HIT CITY

Yunes Handy Aliowi; Qussy Abd Hussen

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2008, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 101-110

Abstract

Hit city suffers from the worst health servies. Though, they are one of the most important basis which should be ocsertained for social and economic development. This is because it has indications to human service, which results from variation in the distribution of health institutions of the city sectors. Moreover ,there is shortage in the number of medical institutions and medical staff and health professions below the maximum of seientific expected rates.Although ,it has a regional nature which serves the neighboring regions which results in many Social and economic problems if it has not been treated in away which suits the number of present population and the grwth rate of the forth coming years.