Volume 2, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 1-177


HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS WITHIN ABU-JIR FAULT ZONE ( HIT–KUBAIYSA )

Mushtaq A. Gharbi; Bayan M. Hussien

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

شملت الدراسة تحديد الظروف الهيدروجيولوجية و الخصائص الهيدروليكية للطبقات الحاملة للمياه و انواعها ضمن النظام الهيدروجيولوجي لنطاق فالق أبو الجير ( هيت – كبيسة ) بالإضافة إلى تحديد السلوك الجرياني و تأثيره على حركة المياه الجوفية و علاقتها بالظواهر التركيبية العامة. خلص البحث إلى تحديد الموازنة المائية الجوفية من حيث كميات المياه الجوفية الداخلة و الخارجة إلى ومن النظام الهيدروجيولوجي مع تحديد الكميات المفقودة على طول خــط الجـريان ( flow line ), حيث بلغ التصريف السنوي الداخل إلى النظام الهيدروجيولوجي (32.32 × 610 ) م3 / سنة, بلغ التصريف السنوي الخارج من النظام الهيدروجيولوجي (10.74 ×610 ) م3/ سنة, بينما بلغ التصريف السنوي المفقود على خط الجريان من النظام الهيدروجيولوجي ( 21.58×10 6) م3/ سنة بشكل تصريف لمياه الينابيع. قدر تصريف المياه الجوفية المؤثر في ارتفاع مناسيب المياه الجوفية في هيت( 243000 ) م3/ سنة, و بلغ تصريف مياه الينابيع المؤثر على البيئة في هيت( 675 × 310 ) م3/ سنة, ليصبح إجمالي تصريف المياه المطلوب التخلص منه بـ( 918 × 310 ) م3/ سنة, من خلال تصميم شبكة صرف ثانوية إلى الشبكة الرئيسية لصرف مياه المجاري ليتم معالجتها بوحدة او عدة وحدات معالجة وحسب التصميم الأساسي المفروض اقتراحه من قبل مختصي الهندسة الصحية لصرف مياه المجاري في المدينة

APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISOTOPES TECHNIQUE IN GROUNDWATER RECHARGE WITHIN MULLUSA CARBONATE AQUIFER-WEST IRAQ

Bayan M. Hussien

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-18

This paper applies environmental isotope techniques to interpret recharge mechanisms of Mullusa aquifer (East Rutba ) and offers an environmental isotope view . Mullusa aquifer is of major importance for the water supply of Rutba region in particular of increasing demand of water resources and sustainability assessment in the future. The traditional hydro chemical and hydraulic interpretation show same phenomenon of groundwater source and interconnection, which may need advance isotope technique to define the exact actual origin of recharge water, using carbon-14 and tritium dating . Based on the isotope analysis of deuterium, oxygen-18, tritium, carbon-13 and carbon-14, the recharge of the carbonate aquifer is mainly from direct infiltration of atmospheric water (Rainfalls and / or runoff ) originated to Indian low pressure depression through exposure outcrops within Hauran catchments area of ( 600-740 )m.asl due to south and southwest Rutba town . The isotope compositions also show that the groundwater is a mixture of an old groundwater with modern recharge in the areas adjacent to Rutba . The maximum percentage of modern water ( pMC % ) is 71% (29% ancient ),which was usually found at the intensively infiltration zones of porous media and / or fractured areas ( Hauran valley ), while the minimum percentage of modern water is 10% (90 % ancient ), which was found at discharge zones as fossil water with very poor replenishment mechanism. Also, this research shed light on the paleo-hydrologic setting ,that may control the recharge mechanism using 14C dating for each site . Finally, the important detected result is that Mullusa aquifer in Dhabaa site (pumping station of multi boreholes system) stored ancient fossil water with slow and limited recharge. The reachable transit time of replenishment is of about 29000 years calculated by traditional hydrogeologic technique, which is closed to the value of residence time that detected by14C dating (31500 years ), so that it is necessary to regulate the production of groundwater according to active plan.

SOME EVIDENCE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF FELDSPAR MINERALS IN SAND DEPOSITS OF DIBDIBA FORMATION IN NASSIRIYA AREA, SOUTHERN IRAQ

Naiel. A. Al- Najar; Sattar. J. Al- Khafaji

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 15-24

يتناول البحث دراسة لترسبات رمال تكوين الدبدبة الحاملة للفلدسبار في منطقة تل اللحم في محافظة ذي قار جنوبي العراق. خضعت النماذج الى عملية التحليل الحجمي الحبيبي , الفحص المعدني والبتروغرافي والتحليل الكيميائي للأكاسيد المرتبطة بمعادن الفلدسبار. بينت نتائج التحليل الحجمي ان الرمال عبارة عن ترسبات بأحجام الرمل والرمل الحصوي والحصى الرملي والحصى , اختص البحث بدراسة الاجزاء الرملية بين (2.00-0.063) ملم وبيان علاقتهما بالتركيب الكيميائي والمعدني لمعادن الفلدسبار أذ شكل الجزء الخشن جدا" مع الخشن (27.54) % بينما بلغ معدل الجزء المتوسط مع الناعم (38.82)%. أظهرت الدراسة البتروغرافية وجود المرو بنوعيه الآحادي التبلور والمتعدد التبلور بمعدل (87.9)% والقطع الصخرية بمعدل (3.9)% ,أما الفلدسبار فيتواجد في الحجوم الخشنة مع الخشنة جدا" (2.0- 0.5) ملم بمعدل (5.9)% بينما في الحجوم المتوسطة مع الناعمة (0.5- 0.063) ملم فكان بمعدل (0.9)% .أوضحت التحاليل الكيميائية للأجزاء الرملية ان السيليكا ,الالومينا ,البوتاسيوم ,الصوديوم ,الكالسيوم ,الحديد والكبريتات قد شكلت المعدلات (92.54, 2.08, 0.9, 0.56,1.01, 0.38, 0.63) %وعلى التوالي كما وأظهرت الدراسة المعدنية بأستخدام جهاز الاشعة السينية الحائدة ان معدن المرو يشكل (88)% كمعدل. بينما يشكل معدن الفلدسبار (12)% كمعدل مما يشير الى أمكانية استخدام مقالع

MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF SOIL SALINITY IN TERM OF SPECTRAL RESPONSE USING LANDSAT IMAGES AND GIS IN MESOPOTAMIAN PLAIN/ IRAQ

Thair Jirjees Benni; Amal Med-hut Abdul-Qadir

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 19-32

Soil Salinity is one of the most important considerations for monitoring soil degradation and continued desertification that threat some regions in Iraq. Remote sensing techniques and GIS operations have been used for multidate image processing to detect and monitor the history changes of soil in the western part of Mesopotamian plain. The aim of this research is to assign the appropriate and effective image processing techniques to be implemented for monitoring, and then to evaluate soil salinity in the term of the corresponding spectral response in the best spectral band. Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM images for the periods 1972, 1990, and 2000 respectively have been selected, as well as ancillary data of the available salinity field measurements have been used. ERDAS (8.5), ENVI (3.6), and ArcGIS (9.2) softwares have been used for the purpose of digital processing, creation of information layers, integration, and statistical correlation. It is concluded that created image brightness and salinity indices indicate the increasing of salt affected soil during the mentioned period of images. And these image indices have the highest correlation coefficient with Mid-IR band. A predictive equation is established to estimate soil salinity in the term of spectral response of Landsat images; the effective relationship is specified at the value above 28 ds/m of Electrical Conductivity (EC), and the obtained correlation coefficient 87 % reaches to 95% when EC values of soil increase to more than 70 dS/m.

DETERMINATION OF MANING ROUGHNESS VALUE FOR EUPHRATES RIVER AT AL-FALLUJA BARVAGES USING DIFFERENT THEORIES

Uday Hattem abdul Hameed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 25-31

يعتبر معامل الخشونة لماننك من أهم المحددات التي يجب تقديرها في الحسابات التصميمية الهيدروليكية الخاصة بالقنوات المفتوحة. في هذا البحث تم حساب معامل ماننك باستخدام عدد من الطرق الرياضية ( ماننك ، كندي ، باكورنس و اينشتاين ) لنهر الفرات عند مدينة الفلوجة ولمسافة ( 1700م ) لاختيار الأفضل من هذه الطرق وأكثرها ملائمة للنهر. ومن المعروف أن معامل الخشونة لماننك يمتاز بتغير قيمه من موقع لأخر مع تغير التصريف في القنوات المفتوحة ، وباستخدام المعلومات المتوفرة لنهر الفرات عند مدينة الفلوجة ولعدة مقاطع وإجراء الحسابات اللازمة لها ولعدة تصاريف مختلفة. كانت النتائج المحسوبة مقبولة مقارنة مع قيم محسوبة لبحوث سابقة.

DEVELOPMENT OF TURBINE SYSTEM FOR PUMPING DEEP UNDERGROUND WATER

Obaid Majeed Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 32-37

بالنظر لقلة الأمطار في الآونة الأخيرة مما أدى إلى نزول مستوى المياه الجوفية بشكل كبير وخصوصاً في الأراضي الصحراوية ، لذلك فقد استوجب استخدام مضخات توربينية متعددة المراحل ولكن هذه المضخات تحتاج إلى قدره عالية لتشغيلها عند استخدامها في الآبار العميقة بسبب خسائر الاحتكاك والخسائر الناتجة من استخدام المساند والأعمدة الدوارة الني تنقل الحركة ، كما ان هذه المضخات عادة ما يتم تشغيلها باستخدام محركات كهربائية مما يستوجب وجود مصدر للطاقة الكهربائية بالقرب من البئر وهذا غالباً ما يكون غير موجود في الأراضي الصحراوية . تم في البحث الحالي دراسة المضخات المستخدمة لاستخراج المياه الجوفية من الآبار الارتوازية العميقة والتي شاع استخدامها في الآونة الأخيرة نتيجة نزول مستوى المياه الجوفية الناتج من الجفاف ، وكان الهدف من الدراسة لتطوير هذه المضخات من اجل تحسين أدائها وزيادة كفاءتها وبالتالي تقليل الطاقة اللازمة لتشغيل هذه المضخات، حيث تم استخدام منظومة هيدروليكية لتشغيل المضخة والاستغناء عن المحركات الكهربائية وكذلك الاستغناء عن الأعمدة الدوارة والمساند وبالتالي تقليل الطاقة اللازمة لتشغيل المضخة . أجريت دراسة عملية على مضخة توربينية ذات مواصفات معلومة تعمل بمحرك كهربائي تم نصبها على بئر ارتوازي بعد أن تم قياس عمق البئر ومستوى سطح الماء في البئر ، وعند تشغيل المضخة التوربينية تم اخذ البيانات المطلوبة لإجراء الدراسة ، بعد ذلك تم تصميم نموذج نظري مطور للمضخة التوربينية يعمل بالهايدروليك وتحت نفس الظروف الخارجية الخاصة بالبئر وقد تم حساب مواصفات النموذج الجديد المطور باستخدام المعادلات النظرية ، وعند مقارنة النتائج التي حصلنا عليها للمضخة التوربينية التي تم نصبها وتشغيلها على البئر الارتوازي مع النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها للنموذج النظري المطور تبين أن النموذج الجديد ذو كفاءة أعلى من المضخة المستخدمة حيث أن المضخة المصممة في النموذج النظري المطور تحتاج إلى طاقة اقل بكثير لتشغيلها للحصول على نفس التصريف.

DETERMINATION OF WATER HARVESTING REGIONS IN IRAQI WESTERN DESERT USING GIS SYSTEM

Ahmed S. Mohammed; Ammar H. Kamel

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 33-42

Water resources is one of the most important criteria for societies building and their development. Evaluation, planning, and management of water resources are rasid to be one of important subjects in the humans life, particularly in arid and semiarid region like Iraqi western desert, since precipitation is extremely limited and spatially distributed, with poorly available ground water supply. Rainwater harvesting is defined as a method for inducing, collecting, storing and conserving local surface runoff for agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions. This paper examines the effects of different variables on the water harvesting in Iraqi western desert like catchments area, bed slope geometric and topographic properties. By using unit hydrograph theory, the volume of harvesting water was calculated, and by frequency and statistical analysis to determine maximum harvesting water for return period (5, 10, 25) years, with geographic information system (GIS) we make a number of maps for the region of optimum harvesting water which can use for design of agriculture and irrigation project in Iraqi western desert. The study show there is a potential ability for using the harvesting water in Iraqi western desert.

INVESTMENT OF WATER DAMS IN WESTERN DESERT IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION (AN ANALYTICAL STUDY AND ECONOMIC )

Hammad .N. Farhan; Abd-alWahhab. I. alabaied; Mohammed . m. hameed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 38-46

Abstract:

The study showed that when the water diversion dams which equal to 252417000 m3/year when the amount of rain falling annually 130/mm to septic ground covered with concrete we can cultivation 394401 d. of wheat or 781476 d. of barley / year or irrigate 56927600 Olive trees or 74 022580 Grape Trees, or the establishment of 45903a fields of poultry produces 459030000 birds / Year, or 334 Cows station, each containing 500 cows to the overall annual production capacity of 609550 tons of milk, while in building an integrated farms, it can bee set up 48199 farms ,each farm is run by a family of 5 members each farm so that it contains 50 Fruit trees and 10 d. of crops with 50 head of sheep and 2 cows, and these farms are scattered around the dams in the 144 residential complexes, and each complex compound 333 farm (family) and dairy plant receives 5 tons / day, while the number of employees is 240995 people. in addition to the plants can be established to invest the available mineral resources in this desert as cement factories, bricks, glass, gypsum and some food factories and when integrated farms(48199 farm) productionis estimated by:

1-240995 tons/year of wheat
2-301243.75 tons/year of barley
3-7832.33 tons/year of olive = 939.88 tons/year of olive oil
4-5422.38 tons/year Grapes
5-48199 born of cows /year
6-1204975 born of sheep/year
7-351852.7 tons of Milk/year
8-2409.95 tons of wool/year
Assuming the passage of 5 years of drought, this water sufficient for:
1-cultivation 78880.2 d. of wheat
2-cultivation 156295.2 d. of barley
3-irrigate 11385520 olive trees
4-irrigate 14804516 Grape Trees
5-establishment 9180 a field of poultry birds produced91800000 birds/year
6-establishment 66 station of cows where each station contains 500 cows, the total of producing = 120450 tons of milk / year.

In terms of economic feasibility was the highest return on investment for poultry farms, a mounting to 69%, followed by fields of cattle , as was 43% , then the cultivation of wheat , which reached 32% , and is fourth place comes as barley cultivation was 21% ,The olive groves , vineyards and farms has been integrated with the user-profit less than 1, it is not economically feasible.

DUST STORMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AT THE NORTHWEST PART OF ARABIAN GULF (A REVIEW)

Abdul- Mutalib H. Al-Marsoumi; Maher M.M. Al-Asadi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 43-53

Abstract:
Aeolian deposits and dust storms have wide geographic distribution in Iraq and northeastern part of Arabian Gulf, this phenomenon get an overtaken interest owing to their environmental impacts on economic activity and human health. Most of aeolian deposits are in the form of dunes. Burchan is the dominant type of sand dunes at Najaf area initiated by the uni-directional northwesterly winds action, nevertheless; dome-shaped and elongated types of dune (Fixed dune) were also reported at Nasiriyia and Samawa. Dust storm phenomena are common in central and southern Iraq and northwest Arabian Gulf. Aeolian deposits are concentrated south of Baghdad, Karbula, Najaf, Nasiriya, Basrah as well as Kuwait. The major source area of dust is Baher el-Najaf sands, and ancient sediments of Dibidbba, Injana, and Rutba Formations cropping out of western Iraq, as well as, alluvial deposit of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The mineralogical analysis indicated higher percentage of light minerals in comparison with heavy one. Furthermore, the heavy and light mineral assemblages of the studied sand dunes proved that their materials have been derived from rocks cropping near by, as well as, the Tigris- Euphrates alluvial deposits contribute to the source materials. The mean values for Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu, and Ni heavy metals in dust fall over Thi-Qar governorate are:149, 8, 7569, 72 and 212 ppm respectively. These values indicate that vehicles engines besides agricultural activities form major sources of these metals

CLIMATIC PREDICTION OF THE TERRESTRIAL AND COASTAL AREAS, IRAQ CASE STUDY

Luma M. R. Ahmad; Salih Muhammad Awadh

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 45-59

Climatic data of four meteorological stations (Mosul, Baghdad, Basra and Rutba) were obtained. Temperature recorded data since 1960 till 2007, rainfall and evaporation recorded data since 1960 till 2008, 1970 till 2008 respectively were used. This study shows a presence of temperature increasing about 5ºC/ 47 years and increasing the evaporation rate with decreasing the rainfall rate. The climatic changes are positively controlled by carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. Basra climate due to its situation, the nearest is expressed as a costal climate has a different behavior from Mosul, Baghdad and Rutba which are expressed as terrestrial

CHARACTERIZATION & CLASSIFICATION OF FEHADA OASIS SOIL AT WESTERIN DESERT OF IRAQ

Ali H. I. Al-Bayati; Abdulkarem A. Al-Alwany

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 47-54

Abstract

This study was conducted at Fehada oasis which located in the westerin desert (45km) south of Al-Quam constituency to identified the soil distribution within the oasis . The semi detailed survey operation was carried using the free lance soil survey method to study its soil and classified them also to prepare soil maps to this oasis. soil were classified accourding to U.S.D.A. S.S. 1998 system to Aridisols in order and Argids to sub order, and completed to soil series accourding to soil classification system suggested by Al-agidi 1981 .after that we was limited the positions of wanted pedons within the oasis. The pedons were disclosed and described morphologicaly and get samples for laboratory analysis. The results was showed existence two soil series within the oasis first is 142CCE which was desert soil series developed from limestone origin materals with fine texture, establish 75.9% from total area of oasis (1267donums) ,Most land of this series was cultivated with shadow trees, olves, pear and wheat crop .
However second series its 132CCE which characteristics its desert soil series developed also from limestone orgin materals with moderate texture, established 23.8% from total area of the oasis (3979donums) accourding to the results we established the soil survey maps to the oasis with scale 1/20000.

جدولة ری محصول الذرة الصفراء باستخدام المیاه المالحة ومعامل الغسل

Saifuldeen A. Salim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 55-61

Abstract:

Less than 50% of leaching requirement application was chosen in order to reduce the negative offect of saline water in irrigation forming by conducting an experiment on clay loam soil, three qualities of water were : river water (Ec 1.4, SAR 2) saline well water ( Ec 4.99 ds/m, SAR 7.5), and mixed water with 1:1 ratio from both above mentioned waters ( Ec 3.1 ds/m, SAR 5), to irrigate corn plants during fall season (2006). The (50% leaching requirements) for each quality of used waters was calculated based on equation mentioned in FAO irrigation water quality index). Were the values (5,15,30%) for each of ( river water, mixed water, saline well water) respectively.
Irrigation practices were applied by using a net of main and sub-main pipes, was designed for this purpose.
Soil moisture was monitored by using netron probe device.
The results showed that the use of mixed and saline water to Irrigate corn plants resulted in significant increase in soil surface (0-0.40 m) salinity which was 1.4 and 1.8 times more than pre planting. A significant increases in modulous ofrupture in soil irrigation with saline water, by 68% and a significant decreases in mean weight diameter by 33% compared with river water. Significant reduction by (23%) in relative yield of corn compared with river water, on the other hand no significant reduction was shown between mixed and river water on their effect on modulus of rupture and mean weight diameter and relative yield.
It was calculated that the addition of 50% of minimum leaching fraction was not adequate for maintaining salt balance, and the importance of increasing saline water application, especially is fine-texturel soil like study soil.

ANALYSIS OF THE CONSTRUCTION BEHAVIOUR OF WESTERN DESERT HORAN DAM H-2

Ahmed Hazem Abdul Kareem

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 60-68

Abstract:

Horan Dam H-2 is earth dam located 18 km NE of Al- Rutba city one each of Anbar government. Horan wadi is located in stable zone of Iraq. No major folded and faulted structures exists in this area. The aim of this research involve the analysis of the construction behaviour for the dam body because of its important in saving the rainfall which used in agriculture and resist the desert increment in west of Iraq . The soil parameters which used in Geo-Slope program obtain from geological study and soil investigation report by (NCCL). The finite element method applied in this study with elastic-plastic soil model. The results analysis show that the dam body is stable and the choose of soil shear strength parameters have great effect on dam stability. The purpose of this analysis to reduce the risk of use this earth structures when engineering construction build on it.

EFFECT OF AMOUNT AND PATTERN OF LEACHING REQUIREMENT FOR SALINE IRRIGATION WATER ON CORN YIELD

H.A. Tawfeeq; Alaa Ali Hussein

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 62-66

Abstract
The study was conducted for determining the effect of application amount and pattern of leaching requirement for corn (zea mays L.) in fall season in 2007, in the soil and water resources center research station - Ministry of science and Technology. The experimental design was factorial complete randomize block design in three replicates.
The main factors were three:-
i. Two quality of irrigation water.
ii. Two level of leaching requirement application.
iii. Two pattern of leaching requirement.
Soil chemical characteristics and yield of corn was monitored as affected by irrigation with saline water.
Results indicated increasing in values for salinity of soil saturation paste solution for depth (0 – 60 cm) to values 3.7 time in irrigation with saline water without application of leaching requirement comparing with soil irrigated with river water.
Using two levels (20 , 40 %) of leaching requirement caused reduction in the values of soil salinity to 30% and 43% comparing with treatment without leaching requirement respectively. Minimum redaction in the yield 14% was occurred in using the second pattern (application of leaching requirement after 50 days from the first application) with 40% level comparing with the yield of irrigation with river water.

INFLUENCE OF LAND SLOPE AND STRAW LEVELS ON FORMATION AND CHARACTERS OF SOIL SURFACE CRUST

Mohammad Kh. Abbas; Yousif H. Al-Nasser

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 67-70

Abstract
The experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of slope and levels of straw addition on characters of soil surface crust under natural rainfall. Special metal containers were used with two slope 2% and 6% and three levels of straw (0, 2000 and 4000 kg-h). The results showed decrease in crust thickness, penetration resistance which coincide with land slope increasing and levels of straw addition. The influence of straw levels were significant in crust thickness, penetration resistance, bulk density and increases in moisture content of crust and under crust at the second and third levels in comparison with first level of addition.

EFFECT OF THE SHAPE SURFACE OF ABSORBER PLATE ON PERFORMANCE OF BUILT-IN-STORAGE SOLAR WATER HEATER

Obiad Majeed Ali; Ahmed Hassen Ahmed; Omer Khalil Ahmad

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 69-80

An experimental and numerical study was carried out on a storage solar collectors to verify its suitability for domestic use. These storage collectors can be used as storage water tanks to replace the ordinary cubical or cylindrical tank commonly used in Iraqi houses. The paper includes study the effect of the shape surface of absorber plate on performance of storage solar collector by construction of three-box type, built –in-storage water heaters with three different shape of front absorber plat, flat, wavy, and zigzag shapes. Experiments were conducted in summer and autumn seasons, and the results were comprable to the theortical calculation.The results indicated clearly that the storage collector can be used for providing hot water for domestic uses, the zigzag storage collector was the best to obtain a high temperature than the other two designs, also the finite difference model proved to be useful for prediction of water tempeatures under variable operating conditions.

EFFECT OF SPRAYING TIME WITH FOLIAR NUTRITION BY NITROGEN ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF TWO VARIETIES OF WHEAT UNDER IRRIGATION SPRAY

Mohamad A. Hameed; Hammad N. Farhan; Asmaa abd Al-ameer Al-Kuzaei

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 71-75

Abstract
The Experiment was conducted in pots contain 9 kg of soil during the season of 2005/2006 to study the effect of nitrogen day and night sprayed in various pushes and to study the interference between them in some morphological characters of two cultivars of wheat ( Abu Ghraib and Altahady). Complete random design (CRD) was used with three replicates. The results were as the following:
The treatment of 6 pushes of foliar spraying with nitrogen for the two time day and night scored the highest value for height of plant (43.33, 42.9 cm/plant), leaf number (13.58, 11.07 leaf/plant), leaf area (28.25, 27.74 cm2/plant), branch number (2.22, 1.98 branch/plant), shoot dry weight (3.01, and root dry weight (0.93, 0.89 gm/plant) respectively. Both cultivars were more response for night nutrition spray much better than day nutrition spray. Abu Ghraib cultivar more response to all treatments than Altahady cultivar. Interaction treatment of 6 foliar pushes nitrogen fertilizer at night gave the highest values for all characters for both cultivars

EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAY OF SOME NATURAL GROWTH REGULATORS (SEAWEED EXTRACTS) ON VEGETATVE AND FRUIT GROWTH OF OLIVE (Olea earopeae L.) Cv Bashyli.

Muna H.Sharif; Zuhir A.D.Dawood; Raad L.Abbud

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 76-81

Abstract:

The research was conducted in the field of Horticulture department ,college of Agriculture and Forestery ,Mosul University-Mosul ,IRAQ. To study the effect of foliar spray of two seaweed extrcts on vegetative and fruit growth of olive (Olea earopeae L.)CV. Bashyki during (2007) year .
Two concentrations (2ml and 4ml) of both seaweed extracts(Soluamine and Marmarine) were used as a foliar spray in addition to control treatement . Each tree was considered as an experimental unit . These treatements were laid out with (Randomized Complete Block Design) (RCBD) used with three replicates, results obtained could be Summarized as following :-
Most seaweed extracts treatements were significantly enhanced vegetative growth of olive trees compared with control treatement , Foliar spray of Marmarine at (2ml/L)caused a significant increase in the length of branches during both seasons (spring and autumn), and the number and length of new seasonal branches , and chlorophyll content compared with control treatement.
The effect of seaweed extracts treatements on fruit characlcristilcs was less significant than its effect on vegetative growth .

FEEECT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATION METHODS IN SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AN GYPSIFEROUS SOIL AT AL-THIRTHAR AREA

Bader M. Al-Dulyme; Zike A.Hassin; Ali H.I.Al-Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 82-98

Abstract:

This study was conducted at fields of Al-Majd agricultural company which located between falluga and thirthar at al saqlawia / Al-Anbar government, to study the effect of using different irrigation methods (flood - drip - sprinkler) irrigation to using its gypsiferous soils with irrigation water class C3S1, to know the effect of this irrigation methods in some soil morphological and physical properties .
After semi detail survey, four positions were pointed that were different in agricultural using nature for three years as following:P1 virgin soil (B), P2 land which used for cereals with flood irrigation method (FW3), P3 land which used for cereals with sprinkler irrigation method (SW3) and P4 land which used for vegetable with drip irrigation method (DV3).These four pedons were described morphologically then soil samples were taken from each horizon to analysis some physical properties. The results showed that following:
1. The thickness of surface horizons for cultivated site increased in comparison with uncultivated soil from 18cm to 25 cm.
2. The soil structure grade was weak in all pedon’s , especially at soil which was under the flood irrigation
3. There is no significant effect for irrigation method on particle density at all horizons, this property data was showed decreasing in its value with increasing soil content of gypsum, but the bulk density was effected by irrigation practice significantly, it was increased 5.4%, 10.0% and 13.9%as mean for treatments DV3, SW3 and FW3 respectively.
4. There is significant effect for irrigation method on studied soil water properties (field capacity, wilting point and available water).Using of drip irrigation method was showed higher increasing in these properties in comparison with other irrigation methods.
5. Soil penetration resistance was decreased 3.9% in farming lands without significant different in comparison with virgin land, and lower value was pointed at Ap horizon for DV3 treatment reached 2.6 kg.cm-2 while the same horizon for SW3 treatment was showed the higher value 3.1 kg.cm-2.

IMPROVEMENT OF WATER-STRESSED MAIZE GROWTH AND YIELD BY PARTITIONING OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER

Ali .F. Almehemdi; Waqqas M. Aljuboori; Mohammed H. Edan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 99-104

Abstract:


A field experiment was carried out at Alsaqlwiyah town/fallujah/AL-Anbar Governorate, on a clay sandy soil to study partitioning of phosphatic fertilizer and water stress on growth and product characteristic of maize (Zea mays L.). The treatment combinations were two levels of phosphorous fertilizer, one dose and three doses application with three levels of water stress, non – stressed, stress at early growth and stress at flowering initiation stage arranged with factorial experiment using R.C.B.D design with three replicates.
The results concluded that phosphorous doses significantly increased leaf area and individual plant yield. Water stress significantly decreased leaf area, plant height, individual plant yield and 100 grain weight. The application of three doses of phosphorus was superior than one dose. The plants that underwent water stress at early growth stage were more impacted than been at flowering stage. It could be concluded that phosphorus had potentiality to increase stressed-crop yield, whereas the initiation of phosphorus partitioning three times X water stress at pre-flowering improved individual crop yield 191.5 gm more than one time without partitioning X early water stress 182 gm.
The integrated management of maize is very important to tolerate stressed environment, because of being difficult to apply phosphorus incorporatedly into soil, due to loss large accounts soil fixation and lowering of plant uptake.Therefore,it has to partition with plant growth stages to increase its efficiency. That is necessary to assist increase of extracting of latent abilities of processes which had important role for increasing water economics, production and productivity. These will emphasize properly scientific decisions for managing these operations.

STUDY THE INHIBITION ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE HYDRO EXTRACT OF MIRABILIS JALAPA ON CELL LINE RD AND AMN-3

Haythem L. Al-Kubaisy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 105-112

Abstract

This study was conducted to figure on the inhibitory ability of the Aqueous "Four O'clock plant"(F.O.P), Mirabilis jalapa leaf extract on the RD and AMN-3 cancer lines.
A crude aqueous F. O. P. leaf extract has been prepaired with four concentrations, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 Mg/ml to be exposed on the RD and AMN-3 cancer lines with exposure periods 24 , 48 and 72 hrs. This study has revealed the existence of an inhibitory effect of the extract (P<0.001) on killing the cells of both cancer lines for all concentrations as compared to control.
The inhibitory effect has increased as concentration has increased. The killed cancer cells have increased significantly as concentration and time of exposure have increased as compared to control. The optimum exposure time was after 72 hrs in both cancer lines. There was an inversal linear relation ship between concentration and cell growth after the exposure periods 24 and 48 hrs; whereas, a non-linear relation ship was found between concentrans and cell growth after 72 hrs.

RECYCLING AND TREATMENT OF AGRICULTURAL SOLID WASTES FROM TOWNS

H.B.Aswad; J.S.H. Al-Kobaisy; Idham; A. A. Assaffii

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 113-122

Abstract

Many research aim at benefiting from the solid wastes of houses , grocers and fruit shops by converting there wastes to organic fertilizers using biological techniques to decompose the waste which, then, will be used as nutrition to agricultural lands. The fermented organic fertilizer increases the productivity of heavy crops and it erades the environmental pollution problem because it is discarded in great amounts annually.
The objective of the present research was to study the influential factors in the decomposition of wastes to gain the optimal conditions that increase the velocity of decomposition and the amounts of nitrogen compounds that attain it through the use of some organisms to top-up there secondary product values to be weal as organic fertilizer. Solid wastes of agricultural products and kitchens have been collected from Ramadi city (Taameem Quarter). An initial information list has been designed and distributed in to 100 vegetable shop and 1000 houses and flats.
The results have shown that the average of waste weight from agricultural sources from families was 2 kg / home / day and 10 kg /shop /day. Treatments were prepared by forming a mixture of waste with rock phosphate (RP) P%8, with mixing percentages 0 and 30%, Nitrogen quantity in urea fertilizer was modified from 0, 0.24% urea .
Decomposition was carried out under aerial and unaerial conditions. Two types of aerial bacteria Azomonas and Streptomycetes were used .The sample was putin plastic cups of 5 kg weight solid phase . Humidity was demermined at 60%. All treatments were subjected to the specified conditions in the study for two months.
Results of analyzing the decomposition products show that:-
All treatments have undergone thermal changes between 22 - 23 Co except the treatment under the unaeral conditions which recorded a noticeable rise to reach its climax at the 5th and 6th weeks with an average between 60 – 64 Co . The smallest pH 5.18 was recorded in decomposition treatments under unaerial conditions followed by treatments using Azomonas bacteria with 6.61 average. Moreover, mixing urea decreased pH to an average of 6.43. The total carbon quantity significantly decreased to 53.8% (182 g. C / kg) before decomposition in the treatments with 30% RP mixing using Azomonas and urea 0.24% . The was a significant increase in the total nitrogen with 14.9, 19.1, 18.6 % and 27.5% percentages, using Azomonas isolate and 30% RP mixing . C:N reached its lowest levels after the decomposition in Azomonas treatments 8:1 , 12.6:1 , 9.5:1 ,14.1:1. The upheld treatment urea 0.24% and RP O% under aerid conditions showed the highest levely of humic acids which was 12.65 g/kg.
The beast treatment for dissolving phosphate composition was RP 30% and urea 0.24% under unaerial conditions , or using Azomonas provided 23.2 and 22.6 g p/kg with a dissolve ratio of 82.3% and 80.1%, respectively 0f total phosphate comositions. The higest quantity of phynol was 2.24 g/kg from treatment RP 30% and urea 0% under unaerial conditions, while the lowest quantity was between 0.23 and 0.75 g/kg with the control treatments and Azomonas. The best numerical density of microbes 8.35 Log cfu/ g was achived from the use of streptomycetes bacteria.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION STUDY OF TIGRIS RIVER WITHIN BAGHDAD CITY USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

Qasim M.AL-saadi; Ahmed Al-khafaji; Qusai Y.Al-Kubaisi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 123-130

Abstract
The study was conducted for the recruitment of remote sensing technology to detect pollution in water of Tigris River within Baghdad city. Three satellites data was used: Landsat7 ETM+ U.S. satellite, with ground resolution of 30m, Spot5 French satellite, with ground resolutionof 2.5m,and Quick bird U.S satellite, with ground resolution of 0.6m,in addition to field survey which included the measurements of reflectance by photometer for the selected sites, A measurement of 36 points distributed along Tigris River starting from Kadhimiya town to the confluence point of Diyala River with Tigris River ,and stabilize the measurement points by means of G.P.S for the purpose of identifying the location of these points precisely on satellite images. Used program ERDAS 8.4 for image processing and classification of satellite images. The results showed the possibility of water separation in the river into three categories ,a natural water class ,polluted water with sewage and industrial pollutants class ,and shallow water class ,it has been shown that the increase in ground resolution will increase the possibility of water separation within the river to secondary classes .

STUDY OF SOME POLLUTION SOURCES FOR EUPHRATES RIVER WATER BETWEEN HEET AND RAMADI CITIES

Bashar A. Mahmood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 131-142

Absrtract:

The research involves the study of expected environmental pollution in Euphrates river water between Heet and Ramadi cities as a result of different human activities . Samples were taken from different places of river , i.c., Heet , Mohammady , Zoweyah , Tal aswad , Zankorah , Abodheab , and Ramadi . The physical and chemical properties of water samples were studied like pH , Total hardness , temperature , suspended sediments , dissolved solid , turbidity , conductivity ,The concentration of calcium , magnesium , sodium , potassium , phosphate ,sulphate , sulphide , chloride , fluoride ions were determined . Some trace elements like Cu , Ni , Zn , Pb and Cr were also determined . The analysis shows varitey of result compared with the national and Iraqi standards .
The physical properties , for instance , the temperature , suspended sediments are within the allowable limits , whereas the conductivity , dissolved solid , and turbidity were higher than the allowable limits in same places . The chemical properties were within the allowable limits except increase in the concentration of SO4-2 , HCO3- and PO4-3 ions which show on increase in other places which reflects the bad environmental situaties in the river and affect its validity for domestic use . The concentration of trace elements , i.c. , Cu , Ni , Zn , Pb and Cr were less than the allowable limits which means that the water is not polluted py these elements

CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS EXPECTED IMPACT ON HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE ARAB WORLD

Khalaf H. Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 143-177

Abstract:

The world is facing a change climate due to high temperatures and the consequent change in air pressure and direction, wind speed, precipitation, which resulted in a change in the environment and the activity of human , Climate change will have negative effects on developing countries ,There will be a change in water quality and quantity agricultural production, These have also negative reflections on the basic elements of human life, food, water, energy, The Arab region is one of the areas that will face the impacts of climate change on economic and environmental areas .These countries have not taken any procedures to confront that change, This research will address the causes of climate change and its anticipated problems in the world in general and the Arab world in particular. This paper discnsses eight aspects presented in eight sections as follows:
first Section - global warming and climate change
Section two - evidence of climate change
Section III - anticipated problems resulting from climate change
Section IV - Indicators of Climate Change in the Arab region
Section V - Analysis of monitoring data for some climate monitoring stations in the Arab world:
Section VI - effects of climate change expected in the Arab World
Section VII - the expected results of climate change in the Arab World
Section VIII - Strategies for Confronting Climate Change in the Arab World.
It was clear from the study that climate change in the Arab region can be easily noticed through high temperatures and the change in the amount of rain falling, weather events like hurricanes and dust storms, and others ,An analysis &some of The available climate data has been made to arrive at highly accurate results away from prediction and forecasting.