Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2010, Page 1-87


THE EFFECT OF IMPROVEMENT ( ORGANIC MATTER-BENTONITE) ON WATER CONSUMPTION USE AND YIELD OF POTATO IN GYPSIFERIOUS DESERT SOIL UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION

Huthaifa M. Al-Najem; Abed S. Al-Dulaimy; Isam K. Hamzah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Abstract:

The experiment had done in a field 15Km east north of Ramadi City during Autumn Season 2003 to study the effect of soil conditioners on water consumption use of potato and yield under drip Irrigation system for gypsiferous soil , (55% gypsium).
The experiment had planned according to split-split plot to R.C.B.D design . the treatments were distributed in to five blocks with five replicates. Soil conditioners ( Organic matter 0% and 2%, Bentonite 0%, 1% and 2%) were added on the base of dry soil weight in the site of tubers by making cylindrical hole for adepth of 40cm and diameter 40cm . percentage of Gypsium was changed by adding a loam soil to the field in a levels 0%,25%,50%,75% and 100%, so percentage of Gypsium in soil became 55%,43%,32%,21% and 12%.
Water consumption use was estimated according to evaporation data from evaporation Pan .where drip irrigation system was used Potatoes yield was estimated and harvesting yield on Dec.30/2003.

WATER HARVESTING SEARCH IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

Hekmat S. Al-Daghastani

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-14

ABSTRACT

In the framework of the methodological approach provided to the water harvesting search programme, for the Ninevah Governorate, a comprehensive remote sensing methodology was develop to identify potential sites for water harvesting exploitation. To over come the problem we must find solutions or some resources which if it managed properly can enhance our supply and reduce the pressure on our limilted water resources, specially after Iraq is being classified as one of the Arab countries which is of critical water resources.
Complete coverage of the Ninevah Governorate by the landsat imagery has been analyzed, to determine major and minor landform characteristics, and its relation with water harvesting search concept. Landsat7 imagery proved particularly useful for revealing landforms within Al-Jazeera Region. Some of these landforms were known or suspected from ground studies, but the majority was revealed for the first time during the landsat investigations. These data were superimposed on the landsat image and kept as background data.
Water harvesting concept can be carried out in different ways and can be stored in different methods too. In this study, the author looks into two different methods for rain water harvesting. These methods are compatible with the best management practice in agriculture or domestic use. In order to reach the fundamental basis of this study, the hydrological systems were monitored in Al-Jazeera Region. The emphasis was on ephemeral stream valleys, and alluvial fans, which located within the gently sloping surfaces of Al-Jazeera Region. By drawing some hydrogeomorphic maps and conducting analyses and measurments, a suitable site was determined to construct a surface run off collection dams and or converted channels on two main valleys (Wadi Al-Tharthar and Al-Ajij). Best locations to construct barriers and stony ditches on the main flow of alluvial fans were determined, to recharge the aquifers beneath these surfaces, which located in both flanks of Sinjar Mounatin. These data were utilized to draw thematic hydro-geomorphological maps to improve landuse and vegetation cover in the study region as a whole which suffers from deficiency in this concern.

COMPOS PREPARATION FROM ORGANIC MATER AND ISOLATES OF BACTERIA AND STUDY THEIR ROLE ON DESERT SOIL PROPERTIES AND VIGNA RADIATE L. GROWTH IMPROVEMENT

Assam.K. Hadethi; Yass.K.Hadethi; Ahmed A.Abas; Idham A. Assaffii

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 9-17

Abstract

Bio-organic fertilizer was manufactured with good C/N ratio by use location wastes plant and microbial biodegradation to increase perfecta microbial activity in soil. The compos effect on the some physical and fertilizer properties was tested in addition to their role on plant growth and yields. Four composes with different C/N ratio were prepare using the powder of Ceratophyllium demesies C/N 16:1 , wheat straw C/N 45:1 and Alfalfa C/N 25:1 and fermented using three bacterial isolates Pseudomonas spp. Streptomycete spp. Azotobacter spp for 20 and 40 days in 28 C0. The mineralization of N and C was determined by measuring CO2 , NO3, NH4 and humic acids. The beast tow composes were used to calcic soil fertilization (1.5% organic –C ), and Vigna radiata cultures with the use of Rhizobia leguminosarum inoculums for 80 days under green house .
Results showed: That the C/N ratio was reached with compos AzWC,AzWF,PsWC,PsWF(C/N 30:1 ,40:1) . Ps. spp reached high noumber 9.507 Log.cfu/g./40days. Tow phases for releasing CO2 were
in the first phase.The best C/N ratios 10:1 ,12:1 were reached in 20 ,40 days with AzWC and AzWF composes ,high falvic acid 3.6,3.5 gm/kg/20 days with AzWU and PsWC respectively , and large humic acid counted 8.0 ,7.7 gm/kg/40 days with AzWC and AzWU respectively .The total N in soil was increased to 95 mg/kg with AzWC treatment and the available P was reached to 37 mg /kg with Ps. Spp treatments. Upper Roots nodulation 26 ,22 nodal/ plant was recorded with RPsWC , RAzWC treatments .The dry weight for plant and yield reached to 117 ,115 gm Dw/plant and 88 ,96 gm grins /plant .After plant harvest the total N and available P were increased.
On the other hands , soil density decreased with use of fermentation with organic mater, water conductivity increased and penetration of soil was reduced. Improvement in the water available for plant ,and an increase

A STUDY OF PHOTO DEGREDATION KINTICS AND TOXITY EFFECT ON THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF NOGOS IN CONTROLLING OF APHIDS ( Myzus persicae ) ON CUCUMBER

Ahmed M. Mohammed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 15-23

ABSTRACT:

This experiment was conducted at AL-Ramadi distinct / AL-Anbar province, Iraq in 2008 to investigate the effect of photo degradation kinetics of 50% (w/v) Nogos ( which belongs to the family of organo phosphorus compounds, of molecular formula (Di Methyl 2,2 – di chlorovinyl phosphate)) on the biological activity of this insecticide in controlling aphids (Myzus persicae) on cucumber.
The insecticide was exposed to three different wavelengths in the laboratory (253.7, 365 and 623.5nm) for four different periods of time (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h) at temperature 25 C0 , before field application for infestation % of aphids and productivity of cucumber were estimated. Results showed that Nogos activity was decreased at low wavelengths treatment, whereas infestation % were (24 and 22 %) at (253.7, 365 nm) treatments respectively. While it was ( 15 % ) for (623.5 nm) treatment decreased productivity of plant with decreasing wavelengths , was also recorded, the average yield was (2893 and 2939 kg/D) recorded for plants treated with nogos exposed to (253.7, 365 nm ) wave lengths respectively , compared to (3154 kg/D) obtained under ( 623.5 nm ) treatment . The results also showed that photo degradation of Nogos which was measured by ion phosphorus increased while pH reduced by increasing light wavelength . The kinetic studies indicated that the rate of reaction is of the first order to drawing the relation between Ln (Po / Pt ) with time of light which showed a linear relation, which was highly effect by light.

STIMULATORY EFFECT OF 2.4-D ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO Lycopersicun esculantum L. CV. SUPER QUEEN

Raad L. Abbud

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 18-22

Abstract

Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of (5,10,15and20) ppm of 2,4-D on growth and yield of plants . It was found that (5) ppm of 2,4-D treatment increased the fresh and dry weight of leaves and not of stems . Further increase in the level of 2,4-D either was un effective or retarded plant growth . The total weight of fruits per plant was increased due to spraying the plants with (5) ppm 2,4-D.
The increase in the yield of fruits per plant due to 2,4D treatments was account much to the increase in the weight of one fruit rather than the increase in the number of fruits . At the first collection the highest yield was produced from (15 and 20 ) ppm 2,4-D treatments in the first season and from (10 and 15 )ppm 2,4-D treatments in the second season, while at subsequent collections it was generally produced from ( 5 and 10 ) ppm 2,4-D treatments . Tomato fruits from 2,4-D treated plants generally were larger in size , containing smaller number of seeds and higher concentration of total soluble carbohydrates than those of un treated plants.

EVALUATION OF WELLS WATER SUITABILITY OF SOME OASIS AT IRAQ WESTERIN FOR HUMAN ANIMAL USES

Abdulkarem Ahmed M. Al-Alwany

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 23-28

ABSTRACT:

This study was conductied to evaluate of wells water suitability for three oasis within westerin ragion at Iraq , they are 98 kilometers ,Fehadi and Al-kesheieti for human and animal uses .Three water samples were collected from every well monthly for one year period in order to doing some chemical and bacterial analysis to evaluate their qualities according to studied characteristics for human purposes dependence to criterion established by american irrigation society and all general health departments while about quality evaluation for these waters to livestock and domestic we depended on proposal guide from FAO . The results of analysis for salinity and total salt content ,pH,total hardness , Mg++,K+, Anions consentration and micro elements were showded that they are among permitted levels for human uses . but Ca++ consentration was go past the permitted level for drink , which was meaning its necessary to limited chemical treatment before using these water for drink .
While for animal uses all studied parameters results were showed its very accepted for livestoke and domestic . the bacteriological study for these waters was indicated that it was very cleans waters and health because we can,t diagnosis the coliform in these oasis water .

HETEROSIS, COMBINING ABILITY AND GENE ACTION USING LINE × TESTER ANALYSIS IN CORN– ANBAR GOVERNORATE

Hamdi J. Al-Dulaimi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 29-38

Abstract:

Eight inbred Lines of maize ware used in this study using line × Tester analysis ,In spring season of 2003, to produce Fifteen f1 crosses . The parents and crosses were sowing in autumn season of 2003 using R.C.B.D. with three replications to determine heterosis , general and specific combining ability effects and gene action . Significant differences were found between parents Lines and their crosses for all traits, the result were showecd that the ctoss ( ZP607×IK8) gave the highest cross vigor in number of rows per ear (26.74%) and grain yield per plant (52.55%) of the better parent . the cross (ZP607×IK8) gave the highest length ear (20.8)cm and number of rowper ear (21.8)rows and grain yield per plant (225.32) gm. .
The value of specific combining ability variance were more than the general combining ability variance for all traits indicating the importance of non –additive gene action . This reflects the reduction of the values for all characters and this reflects the reduction of the values of the narrow sence heritability for all characters and the estimates of the average of dominance were exceeded one for all characters except the ear diameter for the degree of dominance less than one. the results indicate that wecan used some inbred Lines could be used in a breeding program to develop new versions of high yield per plant and SCA to produce better grain yield hybrids and most studied traits were under dominance and over dominance gene action .

أثر العملیات الجیومورفولوجیة لمنعطف نهر الفرات فی تغایر إشکال بعض وحدات خرائط التربة

Salah M.F. AL-Juraysi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 39-47

ABSTRACT:

shape of the map units quantified. Total area of (2181.1 ha.) of the study area, were distributed among nine units map soils and by 28 bis in the of the strip transect, classified according to proposal soil classification of AL-Agidi ,1976. Used nine factors for the expression on the shape of units of the map, four of which Morphometric which is the compactness area and the compactness perimeter and shape factor and factor integration in addition to the transactions geology of the first shape factor and shape factor IV factor compressibility and coefficient of recycling fourth factor Curley, where the results showed that 35.7% of the units map was close to circular shape regular, The soil map were textured medium Macro detailed(Bc) Results showed the important of use coefficients Morphometric for prepare a comparison of shape and some of the Geological such as Coefficients' Chorley, Coefficients' shape and Coefficients the second Compactness:

THE MORPHOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTIVITY CHANGES FOR SAME CORN (Zea mays L.) SUBSPECIES EFFECTED WITH WEEDS

Faiz tahseen fadhel

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 48-52

ABSTRACT:

An experiment was conducted at the right bank of Euphrates River of Ramadi town at spring season 2007 . The factorial experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications .
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weeds in plant growth and it's grain yield in maize subspecies . Three genotypes were used in this study included ; Dent corn , Sweet corn and pop corn , in weedy and non weedy treatment .Results showed that the dent corn plants given the beast and significant values for all traits studied it was (153.5 cm ) for plant higher , 0.68 m2 for leaf area , 15 leaves for leaves number , 15 cm for ear length , 382.2 grain for grain number per ear and 6.7ton/h for the grain yield .
Weeds effected significantly to all traits studied which shown the importance of it's competition to the maize subspecies plants specially the grain yield (7.1 ton/h for non weedy and 2.5 ton/h for weedy ).Interaction results showed a significant effects for most traits studied and not for all it's effected finally on the grain yield , dent corn plants was the beast in it's grain yield with non weedy(10.3 ton/h) and weedy treatments(3 ton/h) , but Sweet corn plants showed a good value it was ( 2.9 ton/h) , it's refer to higher photo synthesis efficiency throw the beast use of growth requirements in spite of weeds competation

A STUDY ON PLASTIC CONTAINERS TO REDUCE THEIR EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT

Hameed K. Ali Al-Dulaimy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 53-60

ABSTRACT:

This study had been carried out on the photo degradation of polystyrene films accelerated by new photosensers derived from Nickel (II) and Schiff bases; the complex was identified by its I.R spectrum, melting point and other physical properties. It was added on the polystyrene films by the following percentages (0.025%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07% and 0.1%) respectively. Then, it was irradiated by accelerated U.V light (350 nm) at 40 Co for different time intervals, and the degree of degradation was estimated by calculating both (IOH) and (ICO). The obtained results are in a good agreement with those of polymers surfaces responded for degradation agents; yet reported. The best degradation results were given by the (0.05%) system while (0.1%) and gave the lowest result as indicated by both I.R and U.V Spectra.

THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRIAL WATER ON EUPHRATES WATER QUALITYAT AL-AMIRIYAH SHIRE.

Sattar Ragab Majeed Al-Esawee

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 61-66

ABSTRACT:
The study tried toobtained the effect of some elements and pollutants of the industrial residues of a number of industrial establishment and its action on (Euphrates river ). Many samples Collected from drown from different regions of industrial drainages before and after the primary and secondary treatment units which aim to reduce the excess of elements and pollutants which causes a sort of toxicity in both water and environment which reflect many harms on both human and other living bodies. The study shown obvious effects of these elements specially that of the nitric acid and other compounds of some elements such as Chromium, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc which are commonly used in coatings, all indicated notable effect in all specimen taken beyond the evacuation stations which causes a clear toxic of the environment.

A STUDY OF THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF THE CAPAR, CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. AQUEOUS CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT ON THE HEP-2 AND HELA CANCER CELLS LINES

Mustafa Nuhad Jumaa Al-Daraji

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 67-73

Abstract

This study was conducted to know the inhibitory effect of the crude aqueous Capar, Capparis spaniosa leaf plant on two cellular cancer lines human epidermoid larynx carcinoma Hep-2 and human cervix uteri epitheloid carcinoma Hela . Four leaf extract concentrations have been used (125, 250,500 and1000) μg/ml and the exposure time was (48 and 72) hrs .
This study indicated a clear significant inhibitory effect (p>0.001) of the extract on the cancer lines ,Hep-2 and Hela ,even with the first low concentration .The cellular Hep-2 density was (0.340%) , whereas the density in Hela was (0.6545%) at the lowest concentration 125 μg / ml . The highest inhibitory effect of the extract was at (1000) μg/ml ,the cellular Hep-2 density (0.108%) and in Hela (0.266%) .
The highest significant inhibitory effect of the extract (72) hrs of exposure time was (0.275%) Hep-2 and (0.4624%) Hela .The result of this study has indicated ahighest inhibitory activity of the aqucous leaf extract of Cpparis Spinosa on the density average of cancer cells for both Hep-2 and Hela .
There was an inversely linear relation ship between exposure time and concentration on the growth of cells . As exposure time and concentrations have increased , the killed cells have increased also .

THE PRODUCTIVE AND MARKEIING CASE OF AL_QA'EM CEMENT FACTORY IN AL-ANBAR GOVERNORATE (1988-2007)

Subhi A. Makhlaf; Hassan Q. Al-Janabi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 74-87

Abstract:
The research deals with the role of industrial populating in situating Al-Qae'm Cement Factory. It deals too with productive departments in the factory. In addition to analyses the productive and marketing situations in the factory from 1988 to 2007 depending on the statistics SPSS. Finally, the problems and obstacles that face the production process were discussed. It is concluded that the factory is not facing marketing problems but production like the supply of electrical power, also economic embargo and the occupation of Iraq which effected negatively the Al-Qae'm Cement Factory.