ISSN: 1994-7801

Volume 3, Issue 1

Volume 3, Issue 1, Autumn 2011, Page 1-205


THE REAL TIME GPS TRACKING ON THE IMAGE SATELLITE BY USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM PROGRAM

Sabah H. Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Spatial data is the crucial component of a GIS. The important sources of spatial data are the already existing digital files, maps, which can be digitized, image satellite, aerial photography and more recently GPS. GPS (mapping type receivers) can be used to map an area and the data can be converted into GIS compatible forms. The principle objective of the present study, is to combine a portable (GPS, type: GPSMAP76SCx) device with the GIS software (Global Mapper 10.0) a laptop computer as a one tracking system, to monitor the real time tracking path of the moving vehicle on the image satellite of the Mosul University Campus (i.e.; integrate image-based road tracking (local) and GPS (global) data) and to study the effect of the spatial resolution and the georeferncing coordinate system of the image satellite on the positional accuracy of the GPS tracking path. In order to present consistent representation of reality, several layers of GIS datasets with different resolution have been used to view the GPS tracking path. The results show that the level of the positional accuracy of the GPS tracking path depend on the type and accuracy of the used GPS, the accuracy of georeferncing coordinate system and spatial resolution of the adopted image satellites (GIS layers). It's also show that the applying of satellite images in consecutive time can be give an illustration for the updating the maps in the GIS database for the purpose of planning, mapping, and surveying applications.

EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER (DAP) AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND THEIR INTERACTION ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL , PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF Arachis Hypogaea L

Mahmoud A. Shaher; Abdul-majeed Abdul-Aziz; Abdullah A. Al-Galil; Mohamed F. Aboud

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-18

Abstract:

Afield study was carried out on peanuts to determine its response to different levels of phosphate and animal manure in terms of some morphological (plant length number of branches ,leaf area,dry weight of the vegetative group )and physiological characterics such as (leaves content of chlorophyll a,b and total chlorophyll and carbohydrates and soluble protein in leaves). The results have shown significant response of peanuts when fertilized with different levels of phosphates .The best response was achieved with 40kg p/ha of phosphates for all studies properties.Also peanuts showed significant response when fertilized with different levels of animal manure (sheep and cow wastes).
The best response was achieved with 40kg p/ha of sheep and cow manure. Results have shown sheep wastes manure gave the best response for all studies properties. Mixing organic with phosphates gave significant response for all studies properties . The best of interaction was 80 kg p/ha with 40 ton/ha of organic manure. The interaction between phosphates and sheep wastes gave the best response for peanuts properties than interaction with cow wastes for all studies properties. It can be concluded that the best suitable ratio for peanuts to gave the best production characteristic to be fertilized with 80 kg p/ha with 40 ton/ha of sheep wastes.

GROUND WATER QUALITY OFAL-MAHED RESIDENTIAL ASSEMBLAGE (ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY)

Adil Ali Bilal Al-Hamadani

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 12-26

Hydrological study was carried out for the Al-Mahed basin area which located at about five Km. of Ainsifin town . High permeability formation at the surface caused high in filtration to aquifer. The topography of Al-Mahed basin area is controlled by the underlying structure and the contrast of the rock type toughness. Water samples were taken from seven existing wells penetrating Mugdadiya formation at Al-Mahed Residential Assemblage were collected and analyzed for the major ions. Besides other ,seven samples collected in sterilized bottles of 100 ml capacity for biological properties .The analysis showed that Alkalinity , ranging from 220 to 400 ppm , Total Hardness from 400 to 800 ppm , Nitrate NO3 from 1.9 to 6.03 and total coliform bacteria /100 ml ranged from 15 to 140.Quality characteristics of the studied ground water do not suit domestic use . These water are contaminated and may be risky.

EFFECT OF IRON SPRAY AND SOIL MULCHING ON SOME SOIL PROPERTIES AND Capsicum Annvum YIELD UNDER DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Haneen S. Sharqe; Ali M. Rejah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 19-23

Abstract:

Afield experiment was conducated during fall season 2006 at al habaniea area 65 west of Baghdad to study the effect iron study with different levels of (0,200,300) mgFe/L on Capsicum crop and soil mulching treatments were:
1-sheep wast
2-blach poly ethylene
availability of Nitrogen and Phosphor in soil and iron content on Capsicum on fruit.
results showed an increase in the availability of Nitrogen and phosphor with soil mulching with poly ethylene and organic matter ,it was (205.02 ,191.54)mg N/kg soil and (25.39 , 31.95)kg P/Kg soil respectively.
A significant increase in iron concentration on Capsicum fruits with increase in level of iron spray. It reach to 106.26 and 120.55 mg/kg for the first and second level respectively. a significant increase was noticed with soil mulching with poly ethylene and organic matter it reached to 95.33 and 105.97 mg /kg respectively the highest increase on Capsicum fruits yield with interaction between second level of iron spray and soil mulching with organic matter at reach to 40.13T/h

THE GENETIC ANALYSIS OF COMBINING ABILITY AND SOME PARAMETERS IN MAIZE(Zea mays L.) BY USING FACTORIAL HYBRIDIZTION

Zeyad A. Al-Draji; Hamdi J. Al-Dulami

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 24-30

Abstract:

Afield experiment was carried out in the city of Ramadi in the center of Al-Anbar Eight inbred lines of maize (Zea mays)were used in this study using factorial hybridization , In spring season (2008) four lines used as parents were crossed an four maternal parents in a factorial hybrid to produce sixteen FI crosses .
The parents and crosses were grown in fall season of 2008 using R.C.B.D. with three replications to determine heterosis, general and specific combining ability effect and gene action . Highly significant differences were found among parental geno type and their crosses for all traits , The result showed that the cross (ZP607 ×S2) gave the highest vigor in each number of grain yield/ plant (36.9%) and rows/ ear (18.1%) of the high parent .
The parental line ZP607 had the best GCA effects that expressed in (ZM12×HS) for grain yield/plant(9.81gm) . The value of additive gene variance was more than the dominance gene variance for all characters and the estimates of the average degree of dominance was exceeded more than one for all characters except plant hight, grain yield/plant . The result indicats that some inbred lines could be used in a breeding program , to develop new versions of high yield per plant and SCA to produce petter grain yield hybrids and most studied traits were under over dominance gene action .

EFFECT OF COONTAIL, Ceratophlum demeresm L. EXTRACT ON GERMINATION AND GROWTH OF FOUR GENOTYPE OF CORN ( Zea mays) L.

Abdulrazzak A. Alzwobaie

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 31-35

A field experiment was conducted at the Dept. of Field Crop Sciences ,College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq on a silty loamy clayey soil during the two successive seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09 to investigate the effect of licorice and fenugreek extracts and GA3 on yield characters of caraway Carum carvi L. An RCBD design with three replicates was used under factorial arrangement by two factors, first factor levels were water, licorice ,fenugreek extracts and GA3.Second factor levels, were the stage of spraying for one time at vegetative, flowering stage and vegetative+ flowering stages. The results revealed that spraying of GA3 at flowering stage gave the highest conc. of carvone of (53.08%) for each season and oil of 3.00%, in the second season. The spraying at vegetative+ flowering stage gave the highest oil% of 2.17 in the first season. But in the second season was 2.79% under the spraying on vegetative stage. The fenugreek was superior in fruit yield and essential oil yield of 502.7 and 530.74 kg.ha-1 .and 9.74 and 13.78 L.ha-1. For each season, respectively. The spraying on vegetative stage had the highest fruit yield and essential oil yield of 486.8 and 485.19kg.ha-1. , 10.43 and 13.68L.ha-1. For each season, respectively. It was concluded that plant extracts were effective in increasing the yield traits.therefore; it could be used as plant growth regulators.

EFFECT OF PRESOWING SEEDS SOAKING IN GROWTH OF WATER –STRESSED SORGHUM

Wisam Malik Dawood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 36-41

Abstract:

A field experement was conducted of full season of 2008 in Al-Khalis Experimental Station to investigate the effectiveness of presowing seeds soaking in water and ( CaCl2 ) solution then subjected the plants to water stress for once and twice at growth stages of GS1,GS2 and GS3 to show sorghum plants potentiality cv. Kafir of drought tolerance .
Results showed that CaCl2 increased leaf area of 10680.75 and 10311.00 cm2 and chlorophyll content of 871.75 and 863.00 mg.g-1 respectively. While the water soaking was superior to increase leaf content of proline of 6.12 and 6.53 mg.g-1 which subjected to once or twice water- stressed reaspectively. Water stress led to significant decrease plant height in each growth stage of 163.75 and 159.12 cm for once and twice respectively. The stress at GS1 significantly effected on leaf area decrease of 148 and 141 cm2 and chlorophyll content of 852 and 772 mg .g-1 ,while plants subjected to stress at GS2 gain the highest proline of 6.5 and 7.14 mg.g-1 and protein % of 9.0 and 9.1% , for once and twice respectively .
The combination of water soaking x water stress (once or twice) x GS2 gain highest proline content. It was concluded that the soaking of sorghum seeds are important technique and urgent necessary to enhance their plants potentiality to tolerate stress environment. Thus it could gave an acceptable yield under these environment .Therefore, it is recommended to pre-sowing soak seeds with CaCl2 solutions to activate and derivate seed potentiality to actively express itself then it could tolerate stress environment.

PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS IN MAIZE AS AFFECTED BY PLANTING DATE – AL-QAIM / AL-ANBAR

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 42-50

نفذت تجربة حقلية في احد حقول المزارعين في قضاء القائم / محافظة الانبار خلال الموسم الخريفي 2009 لدراسة تأثير موعدي الــــزراعة ( 15/7 و 30/7 ) على حاصل حبوب النبات ومكوناته لخمسة أصناف من الذرة الصفراء . استخدم ترتيب الألواح المنشقة بتصميم القطاعات الكاملة المعشاة وبثلاث مكررات احتل موعدي الزراعة ( 15/7 و 30/7 ) الألواح الرئيسية بينما احتلت الأصناف الألواح الثانوية . أخذت البيانات حاصل حبوب النبات ومكوناته وبعض الصفات الأخرى تحت موعدي زراعة . قدرت معاملات الارتباط بين حاصل الحبوب للنبات والصفات المدروسة الأخرى وتجزئته باستخدام تحليل معامل المسار إلى تأثيرات مباشرة وغير مباشرة لتحديد الصفات الأكثر تأثيراً في حاصل حبوب النبات .أظهرت نتائج تحليل معامل المسار عند الموعد الزراعي الأول أن عدد العرانيص في النبات وعدد الحبوب في العرنوص تأثيراً مباشراً موجباً وعالياً في حاصل حبوب النبات ( 1,27 و 1,26 ) بالتتابع وان لارتفاع النبات وعدد الحبوب في العرنوص تأثيراً مباشراُ موجباً وعالياً في حاصل حبوب النبات ( 0,711 و 1,77 ) بالتتابع عند الموعد الزراعي الثاني . كما أظهرت هذه الصفات من خلالها تأثيرات غير مباشرة موجبة وعالية في حاصل حبوب النبات . نستنتج من هذه الدراسة الأخذ في الاعتبار موعد الزراعة عند اعتماد الصفات التي لها تأثيرات مباشرة وغير مباشرة في حاصل حبوب النبات معايير انتخابية عند إجراء الانتخاب في الأجيال اللاحقة لتحسين وزيادة حاصل حبوب النبات في منطقة الانبار .

PREDICTION OF SURFACE AND SUBSURFACEWATER DISTRIBUTION UNIFORMITIES UNDER CENTER PIVOT SYSTEM

Ahmed Riyadh Abdelatif; Emad Telfah Abdelghani; Farhan Mohammad Jassim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 51-56

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted in Thirthar region , Al-Anbar governorate in sandy loam textured soil. The study aimed to evaluate water uniformity for a center pivot system (Valley type). The uniformity water disribution of above and below soil surface was evaluated along the main line and in the direction of the system movement. Three sprinklers’ heights, which were 50, 100 and 130 cm, have been considered during the field experiment. The water cans container depths were used to assess the above soil surface uniformity. The average volumetric soil water contents were measured at three soil depths, 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm, to assess the below soil surface uniformity. The measurements were taken after 24, 48, and 72 hours from the time of irrigation. The results showed that the sub-surface uniformity is higher than the above soil surface uniformity. On the average, there was a noticeable decrease in the surface soil uniformity measured along the main line (68.4 %) compared to that measured in the direction of system movement (80.5 %). On the other hand, there wasn’t much difference in the subsurface uniformity measured in both directions (88.2 % along the system movement and 89.1 % along the system line).
The results also was revealed that the subsurface uniformity is less affected by the sprinkler height compared to the surface uniformity. Relationships between subsurface and surface uniformities have been uniquely developed. The presented equations can be used to predict subsurface uniformity from surface uniformity with insignificant errors.

EFFECT OF SULFUR AND DAP FERTILIZER ON GRAIN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF SORGHUM

Khalil L. M. Ali; Waleed A. T. Elfahdawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 57-62

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the research field of Crop Science Dept. in the Agriculture College in the Univ. of Baghdad, during the spring season of 2007.The objective of this study was to study the response of sorghum to application of different rates of agriculture sulfur and DAP fertilizer.The experiment included four levels of agriculture sulfur ( 0 , 1000 , 2000 and 3000 kg S .h-1) and four levels of Diammonium phosphate ( 0 , 22 , 44 and 66 kg P. h-1 ) . Treatments (4×4) was distributed in Completely Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates, the following traits have been studied; number of seed per head, 1000 seed weight, grain yield and protein percent, and the results as follow:
The agriculture sulfur had significant affects on all the studied traits, the treatment(3000 kg.h-1)sulfur gave the highest values for all traits in this study.( 2344 grains, 26.6 gm, 8.32 ton.h-1 and 11.57% ) respectively. DAP fertilizer had significant affects on all the studied traits, the treatment (66 kg P.h-1) gave the highest value for all traits (2259 grains, 26.6 gm and 8.07 ton.h-1) respectively. The treatment( 22 kg P.h-1 )has the highest value for protein percent (10.57%) which has no significant difference with the treatment(44 kg P . h-1) . S×P level interactions had significant effect,whereas 3000 kg S.h-1 × 66 kg P. h-1 gave highest grain no. of 2433 grains.2000 kg S.h-1 × 66 kg P. h-1 had highest 1000 grain weight and grain yield 0f 27.5 gm and 8.71 ton.h-1, respectively . Protein percent was highest of 11.69 % under 3000 kg S. h-1 × 22 kg P.h-1 interaction .

Desert Depressions (Khabrat ) in the Iraqi Hamad and their possibility for water Harvesting

Mashal M. Fayaadh Al-jumaily

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 63-84

Abstract:

This study aim to find out the geographyical characteristics of the desert depressions in Iraqi Hamad and their possibilities for water harvesting ,by using satellite data and geographic information systems ( Arc GIS 9.3) .The study area is located between the latitude of 32º 5´ to 33º 39´ North and the longitude of 38º 47´ to 39º 41´ East ,in the northern –western of Iraqi western plateau .
There are 22 depressions in area under study , their areas are between 0,149138 km² as in Uniza depression to 3.120135 km² for Kharjah depression . These depressions are different in capacity of water harvesting ,Kharjah has capacity of 6240270 m³ , while Uniza has no more than 149138 m³.The capacity of al- Ghatia depression is 2100277 m³, less than the water comes from its catchment area 3743191 m³ as is estimated by researcher according to the method of Snyder .
Depressions are created by solution of lime stone and other helping agents and processing such as wind ( deflation ) ,lineaments ,and geological formations. Some of the depressions have centripetal drainage pattern and their shapes are near to the circle shape as well as other features , so these depressions are suitable for water harvesting .

A SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF GROUND WATER & ITS INVESTMENT POTENTIALS FOR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN AL-GARMA DISTRICT-Al-ANBAR

Qassim O. Fadel AL- jumaily; Kamal S. Gazgooz Al-Ani

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 85-97

Abstract:

This study relies on the documented data on ground water in Al-Qarma district in Al-Anbar governorate in order to assess its investment potential for agricultural production. The study takes into consideration the following factors:
The number of wells, its geographical distribution and place differences, areas under agricultural investment, and the population size in the area of study. This area is chosen for study because of its importance in the agricultural activity in Al-Falluja area and its heavy reliance on ground water in the activity. This study, therefore, starts with an analysis of the natural and human characteristics of the area. It then proceeds to analyze the current situation of the ground water on the level of distribution, hydraulic characteristics, and use. It then analyzes the patterns of land agricultural use according to counties, including the study of the animal resources in this area by type, number, and distribution. The study ends with a geographical vision of the future of ground water investment through the developing projects in this area.

Cultivation of Summer vegetables in Al-Anbargovernorate (( Tomato , Cucumber , Eggplant , watermelon , Melon )) .During the years 2004 - 2008 .Comparative Geographical study

Lateef M. Hadeed Al- Dulaimi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 98-109

Abstract:

Al-Anbar governorate has fertile agricultural lands , represented by the flood plain which is located along the Euphrates river , the plain starts from the Syrian borders from the west till it meets the Mesopotamian plain at the area of Tel-Aswad on the left bank of the Euphrates river north west of Ramadi City and it continues until exceedes the governorate borderes At Al-Amiria village which belongs to falluja town .
Summer vegetables crops considered as important crops produced by farmers in the Anbar governorate , the most important crops are ((Tomato , cucumber , Eggplant , Water Melon , Melon))
This study aims at studying the areas cultivated for every crops for aperiod of Five years ((2004 - 2008)) .

RECURRENCE OF DUST STORMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS IN RAMADI CITY

Hameed R. Al-janabi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 110-122

Abstract :

Dust storms are among the natural phenomena which the climate represents the main factors behind their occurrence . These storms are increasing steadily in Iraq , therefore , the researcher choose to study them depending on library references , field studies as well as climate data used in the weather forecast in Ramadi station for a period of thirty years (1981-2010) which represents a climate circle .
The basis hypothesis ( namely the relation between weathering factors and the increase in the recurrence of dust storms in Ramadi city and their environmental and health effects ) has been investigated . The objectives of the study are as follows :
1. Determining the causes of the dust storms in Ramadi city and the factors effecting them .
2. The geographical distribution of dust storms .
3. Determining the negative consequences ( health and environmental ) resulting from the recurrence of dust storms .
The scope of the study is restricted to investigating the environmental and health consequence of dust storms Ramadi city in Anbar province only .
The quantitive as well as the analytical approaches have been used in presenting the subject of the study .
The research has been divided into three basic sections:
1. Dust storms and their causes .
2. Geographical distribution of dust storms in Ramadi city .
3. Environmental and health consequences of these storms in Ramadi city.
The study has come out with a number of conclusions and recommendations .

THE POPULATION EXTENSION ON THE ACCOUNT OF THE AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE COUNTRY SIDE OF AL-RAMADI DISTRICT SECTION (18) AL-TALAH

SaadoonDhaherKhalaf Al-Duleimi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 123-133

Abstract:

Section (18) occupies a distinguish location comparison with Al-Ramadi district and because of its location near of Euphrates river, near of the city center and the natural circumstances for rising agriculture makes it an important district for producing most of the agricultural field crops.
The study area faces a big problem because of population growth. In section (18) Al-Talah, in 1987, the number of population was (7152) individual and increased in 2007 to (10244) individual. The number of living units were (400) units in 1987 and increased to (1240) units in 2007. that means the living units occupied a big agricultural areas that had the good quality cultivation. This threatens the agricultural production, in addition to that the number of population will reach (13771) persons in 2017 in the section according to the scanning counteraction and the population needs for living units in its both sides, agriculture and animal resources.

STUDY OF THE VALIDITY OF SOME WATER WELLS IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE FOR HUMAN AND AGRICULTURAL USES

Bashar Abdul-Azeez Mahmood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 134-146

Abstract:

The study consists of conducting the physical and chemical tests on wells water for the study region in Anbar governorate from Qaim to Falloja city. The samplings were made on stages, started on October, 2008 and ended in March , 2010. The physical tests consist of (temperature, conductivity, turbidity, suspended sediments , dissolved solid) while the chemical tests consist of (pH, cations (calcium , magnesium , sodium and potassium), anions (sulphate ,pecarbonate , sulphide and chloride)) and Some trace elements like Fe , Cu , Mn and Zn were also determined . The analysis shows varitey of results compared with the International and Iraqi standards. The tests results show high values of anions and cations. Also there is a small increase in Manganease value. The study concluded that the well water is not suitable for human use without treatment, but it is suitable for agricultural & irriagation uses especially for crops that bear high salinity in all of the study region .

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDY OF MARIJ VALLEY WATER SOURCE AND EFFECT OF EUPHRATES RIVER IN HIT AREA

Saja Yehia Abdul-jaleel AL-Dosouri

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 147-158

Abstract:

Water samples were collected from nine location , The first one was on the Marij Valley , the second was the valley water flow before the river, The third location was Euphrates River befor the marij vally, The fourth was the point of valley with river confluence, The fifth was of the mix point of union between he valley with the river, The sixth location was of the end of meting of the valley with river, The seventh was the Euphrates River after the valley, The eighth was the Euphrates River after 100 meter from valley, The ninth location was of the AL-Sehil Aljife spring . All the were in Hit area which beloing Alanbar Gavernorate.
The physical and chemical parameters of water measured. The temperature ranged between 20-24.5 C0. , pH was between 6.9-8.2 , electric conductivity was 1255-20000 M siemens / cm, Total souble solids 627-7640 mg / L, dissolved oxygen 0-8.7 mg / L, biological oxygen demand 0-4.2 mg / L, Total hardiness 500-2140 mg / L , Ca 68-408.8 mg / L, Mg 17-279.7 mg / L, Na 44.2-3330.7 mg / L, K 2.2-273.2 mg / L, CL 355-12638 mg / L, SO4 590-3970 mg / L , NO3 3.16-47.95 mg / L .
The present study showed that, the pH of the studied area
varies fom neutral to weak basic, High conductiviy ( Total salinity ) was observed in addition to increase the concentration of Total Dissolved Solid, Total Hardiness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Poyassium , Chloride, Sulphate, and Nitrate in the Marge valley, valley water flow before river, Alsihil aljife spring and the first mixing of the valley with river water .
Which confirme the effect of that valley on the quality of Euphrates river .

EXTRACTIONS AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME ACTIVE COMPONENTS OF IRAQI’S CAPPARIS SPINOSA AND STUDY OF ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES.

Saddam H. Fadhil; Eman Hussam; Tahseen A. Zaidan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 159-169

Abstract:

A Chemical and Biochemical studies have been implemented to different parts of the Plant: capparis spinosa, which is one member of the Capparidaceae, during Flowering and Fruiting Stages.
The maximum extraction rate was obtained by water followed by acetic acid and alcohol. The Chemical Tests were done on all the extractions for comparison led to the presence of important types compounds including; Tannin, Fluba-tannins, Saponins, Flavonoides, Terpenoids, Phenols, Resins, Carbohydrates, Amino acids, Alkaloids and Glycosides. Our study revealed that the plant was found to have the highest rate of Potassium in all parts of it through flowering and fruiting periods comparing with Sodium and Calcium.
Active materials were isolated from the aqueous extractor using Gel filtration technique with four liquid mobile phases (D.W, Tris-HCl PH=6, Tris-HCl PH=7, Tris-HCl PH=8) through column packed with Sephadex gel G-25.The effluents from the Column were studied Spectrophotometrically in the range of (200-800) nm simultaneously with the general extractor for comparison.
The results revealed that the amounts of Tannins increased on fruiting period more than the Flowering period for all parts (Root, Leafs, Flowers) of the Plant except the Fruits where its quantity decrease in the Fruiting period in comparison with the Flowering period.
The results clarified that the Moisture increases at Fruiting period more than the flowering period. On contrary, the Percentage of Ash decreases at fruiting period to a level less than the Flowering period for all parts of the plant too.
Using Agar-Well Diffusion method, It was found that the aqueous extractor at Flowering period gave the largest inhibition diameter against golden grapes of S.aureus. On other hand, Acetic Acid extractor during flowering stage has offered the higher activity against Escherichia Coli.

MATHEMATICAL RELATION BETWEEN DEGRADATION RADATION RATE AND VISCOSITY OF AMMONIUM POLYPHOSPHATE

Khateeb; Ismail Khalil AL; Hanan Hasan Flyiah Al-Azawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 170-179

Abstract:

The research is conducted to establish a relationship between degradation rate and viscosity of Ammonium - polyphosphate at acid medium with pH ranged between 0.5 to 2.5 under temperatures of 293,313,333 and 353 k, the concentration of librated phosphorous is estimated by ascorbic acid method while the values of viscosity is measured by Ostwald’s method using viscometer .The rate constant of degradation is calculated as a function of time while the activation energy values were estimated Arrhenius equation The results showed that the degradation of ammonium - polyphosphate is a first - order reaction . The rate constants of reaction was increased dramatically with temperature while the viscosity values decreased with temperatures . However, the rate constant is highly affected by pH and decreased with decreasing of acidity . Meanwhile , the mathematical model was suggested to describe the relationship between the rate degradation and viscosity of Ammonium - polyphosphate .The modified empirical equation is :-
T
K=0.0028
η

STUDY THE BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY FOR WATER EXTRACT OF Datura stramoniumo L. PLANT RADIATED BY ULTRAVIOLET RAY TO GROWTH OF SOME BACTERIAL PATHOGENIC GENISES

Ibraheem Jaleel Ibraheem

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 180-185

Abstract:

This study is about the effectiveness of aqueous extract of Datura stramoniumo L. plant leaves before and after the irradiating of the extract by Ultraviolet for wave lengths (254nm , 365nm) and for periods of time, one hour, two hours and three hours, on some pathogenic bacterial isolation for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and measuring the change in electrical conductivity and hydrogenous exponent (PH).The study showed non-significant changes in the electrical conductivity of the irradiated extract by Wave length (254nm) and (365nm). The hydrogenous exponent, also, showed non-significant changes at wave length (365nm), while the changes were obvious at wave length (254nm).
The study of vital effectiveness showed the unsensitivity of the extract before and after irradiation against bacteria , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus, aureus, but it showed the sensitivity against bacteria , Escherichia coli before irradiation, but the sensitivity disappeared after the irradiation at a wave length (254nm), either when Wave length of (365nm) did not show any significant change.

THE SARCOCYSTIOSIS CAUSED BY SARCOCYSTIS CAMELI INFESTATION PREVALENCE AMONG CAMELS IN AL-ANBAR GOVERNORATE - IRAQ

RaghadWaleed Khalil Al-Karboly; Suad Shallal Shahatha

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 186-191

Abstract:

This study included the test of 56 slaughtered camels with different ages and sex number (26 males and 30 females) in different areas in Al-Anbar to investigate "Sarcocystiosis" caused by Sarcocystis cameli by both optical and microscopic tests for the three respective years 2007 , 2008 and 2009 .
Results revealed an optical infestation was 1.78% and microscopic infestation (by muscle ingestion with pepsin and fluid testing) of 80.3% . The infestation percent in females was 48.2% which was higher than the infestation percent in males which was 32.1% .
The infestation percent had increased as age had increased . The highest infestation percent was 76.8% at age more than four years . Also , the highest average of oesophageal infestation percent was 73.8% and the lowest was 51.8% for cardiac infestation .

SENSITIVE AND REMOVAL THE SOIL POLLUTION WITH ELEMENTAL OF COBALT AND CADMIUM BY USING BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRIAL SOIL ANBAR REGION

A. H. Abdel Karim; M. Turki; Idham; A. Assaffii

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 192-197

Abstract:

Study was conducted to isolate and diagnosis of bacterial isolates sensitive and resistance for components of Co and Cd, and the ability of these isolate which were to resistance to removed high concentrations of Co and Cd from components derived soil extract. Personalize Pantoea sp. isolated filename as isolated from soil extract withes to a concentration of 5 mg Co,Cd/l. It also found Micrococcus luteus resistance and treatable with ordinary two resisted concentration was 80 mg Co/l and 90 mg Cd/l.
Have isolation when added to cells 6.2 Log cfu/ml 48 hours after a top lap of remove components Co, Cd by 46.2% (37 mg Co/l) and 48.88% (mg Cd/l) and remove the ability of 0.86 and 0.95 respectively. As increasing density isolation (2) efficiency in removing components under different concentration of components after 98 hours lap with Co concentration 60 mg/l by removing plants remove 1.5 and remove to concentrate 80 mg/l Cd and remove 1.1

EFFECT OF FOLIAR NUTRITION OF POTASSIUM ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT Triticum aestivum L. CULTIVATED AT GYPSIFEROUS SOIL UNDER PIVOT SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Naeem A. Mutlag; Raad L. Abbud; Shamel E.Neama

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2011, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 198-205

Abstract:

Field experiment was conducted in winter season of (2009 – 2010) at Tharthar region (Anbar governorate) to study the effect of two form of potassium fertilizer (potassium Sulfate , potassium humate) those form were applied in four levels to study their effect on growth and yield of wheat variety (Abu-Ghraib)cultivar grown at gypsiferous soil under sprinkler irrigation . The factorial experiment(2×4) was conducted according to randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three results can be suammerized as follows : Potassium sulfate had asignifcant effect on plant height , dry matter , spike length but potassium humate had significant effect on flag leaf area , number of spikes/m² , number of seeds/spike , weigh of thousand grain , grain yield and harvest index .
Foliar fertilizeration of potassium significantly effect most of the studied parameters also the highest application treatement was significant compared with other treatements .
The interaction of the two studied factors of the experiment significantly affected all the parmeters except spike length and biological yield .