Volume 4, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2012, Page 1-116


ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICTION OF THE PRODUCER AMYLASE ENZYME Aspergillus niger FROM SOME AL_RAMADI SOILS AND THE USE OF PLANT WASTES TO PRODUCE IT

Farkad Hawas Musa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-6

ABSTRACT:

This research was conducted to study the production of amylase by the fungus Aspergillus niger which is isolated from some Ramadi soils :Also to know its adequacy in the enzyme production PH,Temperature ,Carbon source , Carbon concentration ,Nitrogen and incubation period .The highest production value was 8.0 cm at PH 5.0 , 30C with the use of (Ceratophyllum demersum ) as the only carbon source at the concentration 1.5% and for the incubation period 8 days.

SYNTHESES AND USING OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM RICE HUSK AND PURE SILICA FOR POLLUTION REMOVAL PROCESS

Tariq Abdul-Jaleel

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 1-10

Activated carbon Rice Husk ACRH and Silica powder of Rice Husk SRH has been successfully synthesized from Iraqi Rice Husk RH through physical and chemical activation processes using potassium chloride KCl and N2 gas as activating agents, and carbonized for production of activated carbon at 500C0 for 2hrs. The production of activated carbon (AC) appeared to be one of the most important phases of this study. SRH was carried out by treatment with acidic and basic solution and pyrolysis at 500 Co for 2hrs. Three kinds of adsorption materials was studyed with the removal of polluted water (RH , ACRH and SRH) . FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectra were performed for characterized and studying adsorption, which calculated with using an Langmuir and Freundlich Equations. Frandash equation isotherms was largely applied or fitted on the behavior of adsorption processes.

COMPARISON OF GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF GROUNDNUT GENOTYPES

Bushra Shakir Jasim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 7-13

ABSTRACT:

Field experiment was conducted during 2010 at right bank of Euphrates river in AL-Anbar province. The texture of soil was clay –loam. RCBD with three replications was used to evaluate response of 16 genotypes (C69A-25-1-1-1, C109A-7-4B-5, KGV-86237, C109A-32-1-B-1, ICGV-87437, ICGV-86868, KIRIZ, MH383, C82B-36-1-2-1, C82B-13-3-1-10-1, ICGV-87424, C161A-SSD-4, 1-A,10-A, 11-A, and 22-A). In addition to local cultivar. Result showed that. The two genotypes, A -22and KIRIZ were surpassed to the other genotypes in dry weight of plant (518.2g) and (462.9g) respectively. And genotypes ICGV-86868, A-10 and C109A-7-4B-5 were superior significantly in the number of pod per plant (171.10), (175.50) and (158.20Pod) receptivity. While genotype A -10 superiority all genotypes in the percentage of mature pods an average of (76.57%). The genotype MH383 was ranked first in the shelling percentage (73.07%), Genotypes ICGV-86868 in pod yield and seed yield (10.48 t. ha-1) and (6.01t. ha-1) receptivity. And genotype ICGV-87424 in oil content (45.70%), while genotype A – 11 in the percentage of protein (23.52%).

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A WIND TURBINE BASED ON A SOLAR NOZZLE

Jamal H. Waheb

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 11-16

A modified method has been proposed for conversion of wind energy into mechanical energy accelerates because of the narrowing constriction. Heat energy acquired from the wall is converted into the kinetic energy of flow. Critical dimensions are calculated for the convergent nozzle that made of glass. This study focuses up on the benefits of using solar nozzle on the wind energy. The study is an attempt to raise the local wind velocity (1 m.sec-1) to a high velocity that gives good energy allowed the wind plant to generate power, other words in order to increase the efficiency of the plant. From the results, it is observed that the velocity of wind increases by the increment of heat gain and decrement of the area. The exit velocity value in the case of heat added is reached to (19 m.sec-1), while in the case of no heat transferred is about (18 m.sec-1). Calculation indicates that maximum heat gained could give (2.5 KW) output power.

DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN CITRUS FRUITS GROWN IN RAMADI, IRAQ

Ali Fadaam Al-Mehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 14-20

ABSTRACT

Samples of Citrus aurantium L. fruits were collected from many sites from Ramadi city and control sample from Aljazeera rural. The sites considered as the factor one and fruit parts as second factor using RCBD design with three replicates. The results showed that the sites, 2, 3,4,6,7 and 8 contained lowest concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb, while these metals increased in 1 and 5 sites. But were involved in FAO/WHO recommended ranges just of Cd was exceeded the limits of 1.07 and 1.00 mg Cd.kg-1, for each sites 1 and 5, respectively. Thus it could be hazardous indicator for health and environment. Heavy metals also were accumulated in cortex higher than in pulp of 0.89 mg Zn.kg-1, 0.64 mg Cd.kg-1, 4.18 mg Ni.kg-1 and 1.85 mg Pb.kg-1. It seemed that the plant removed the surplus metals via accumulation of it in cortex which depend on the source –sink relationship. It could be concluded that the heavy metals pollutants increase in terms of site and pollution inputs that the plant had important role to retard these metals via extract them from soil and atmosphere. Therefore, it could be recommended to apply chemo physiological to investigate metal extraction efficiently from soil by plants as phytoextraction to remedy heavy metals.

EFFECT OF MOISTER TENSION LEVELS, MAGNESIUM AND SOIL TEXTURE ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CORN. (Zea mays L .)

Samir S. Kh. Al-Rawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 21-30

Abstract:

A Factorial experiment has been carried out an Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates for each treatments. Flowerpots with a capacity of (8 kg ) of soil, Corn was grown on the 15th july 2011. Irrigation processes were done depending on weight method to maintain soil moisture with the limits of moisture tension extent that represent tension rates of water ; 25%, 50% and 75%. calculate Some morphological characteristics. Below are the most important results. Moisture tension difference has significant influential all studied morphological characteristics(plant height, leaves area, Number of leaves. per plant, dry weight of the green parts and dry weight of the roots). The moisture tension rate (%25) has got excellence over the rate %50and %75 and it resulted (74.13 cm, 599.63 cm2, 12.26 leaf.plant-1, 42.73 gm and 23.76 gm), respectively. Also the increase in the level of magnesium addition has significant effects. The addition of 150kg.h-1 of magnesium got excellence over level (0, 50, 100) kg.h-1. Which was 67.33cm, 462.cm2, 11.9 leaf.plant-1, 32.8 gm 17..5 gm), respectively. Soil texture has significant effect; blend clay soil got excellence over the blend sandy

CLUSTER ANALYSIS FOR DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF PEANUT

Ryad J. Mansour

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 31-35

ABSTRACT:

A field experiment was carried out at four sites (Al-Anbar ,Al-AshaqiGaloulaa andAl-Kut ) in 2002 to test the performance of 11 genotypes of peanuts (ArachisHypogaea) and accumulated into uniform groups, in addition to estimate the genetic diversity in term of euclidean distancethrough cluster analysis. Pod yield was analyzed based on hierarchical clustering technique after constitute resemblance matrix. The genotypes grouped into six clusters which they formed during teen stages. Each group consisted of two genotypes beyond groupVI which it consisted of one group. The cluster analysis indicated that genotypes Medni and ICGV863 were hadsimilar response because of having minimum Euclidean distance and this may be an indicator of similarity for the genes they carry on. The genotype C92 had the highest Euclidean distance and genetic diversity and this may be a result of difference of its pedigree. The tested genotypes were grouped into two major groups, group (A) included genotypes I, III , VI,while group B included the rest genotypes which had highest yield than A, this may be a result of existing favorable genes govern yield character. The local cultivars can be improved through transporting the yield genes from diverse, superior genotypes.

DETERMINATION OF LANDUSE IN THE BAIJI AREA NORTH IRAQ,

Waleed Y. Alubide

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 36-42

ABSTRACT:

The current research has been used the American satellite images (US Landsat-type ETM +), obtained from the University of Maryland in the United States of America. Dating on May 2006. The images has been analyzed and classified to produce landuse maps of the study area by using ERDAS IMAGINE software Ver.8.4, and the Global Mapper Program V. 10. The spectral specification was analyzed to determine and identify the main categories of land cover classification by using Supervised Classification. The studied area was divide into twelve items included green vegetation (light and thick vegetation); Sand dunes ;water; urban; river terraces; hard rock (gypsum); soft rock(claystone siltstone and sandstone); Arid soils (rich in sand clay and gravel); wet soils (sabkha ); soft soils( rich in Gypsum fragments); and the plowed soil. The final results indicated that the area of green vegetation is amounted to approximately (357.77) km² and representing the proportion of 16.17% of the study area. while the soft soils( rich in Gypsum fragments)ranked in the first to reach (511.01) km², representing accounted for 23.10% of the study area, while the presence of sand dunes play the most important negative factor affecting the region and It occupies a total area of 173.67 km².

دراسة بعض الصفات الفیزیائیة لتربة رسوبیة فی محافظة الانبار للتنبوء بمعدل القطر الموزون

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 43-48

This study was conducted at Al-Hamuzia sector, Al-Anbar Governarate to find out the effect of some soil components on its aggregate stability. Twelve pedons were excavated in selected sites in the region which representing different land uses (orchids, vegetable, cereals and bare) with three replicates for every land use. Results showed that the all selected soils under subgroup Typic Torrifluvent and series DW75. Significant decrease in mean weight diameter the (MWD) with depth for all studied soils was showed with higher variation between surface horizons and land use, the same trend was recorded about soil carbon content while no significant variation was showed due to clay separate and calcium carbonate content with a significant increase in soil calcium carbonate content at subsurface horizons. a positive significant correlation between MWD and organic carbon , clay separate was showed while a negative correlation between MWD and soil calcium carbonate content was recorded. The multiple regression showed the possibility of prediction to soil MWD from the relationship of soil organic carbon content, clay separate and soil content of calcium carbonate with high significant correlation coefficient R=0.858.

PLANNING MECHARISM FOR STRATEGIC EVELOPMENT IN ANBAR FROM 2010- 2030

thaer sh .mahmood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 49-70

The strategic planning of urban development in the provinces suffer from the lack of an appropriate mechanism meets the requirements of national development, especially as the modern tendencies toward decentralization andGoodgovernance..From here starts search to identify a proposed mechanism for how to put a sequence of steps strategy appropriate for urban development at the level of cities of Anbar province , and the time period (2010-2030) taking in to account the elements of the province and a participatory approach between local government and community Anbar to reach the most important problems facing the facing the development of the province and cities a according to the sequential stages start setting goals and development sectors as priorities and down to the tree goals future public and detailed that be specific periods times and well thought out spatial locations to achieve the required target year.

تطبیق أسلوب التحلیل ألعاملی Factor Analysis لمؤشرات التنمیة الحضریة

Louay Taha Mohammed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 71-82

The indicators of scale urban development summarizes information express a problem or a particular phenomenon and taken advantage of the planned and the decision maker may be these indicators take prescription quantity or quality of help in determining the priorities of urban development. The urban indicators of development in cities is one of the mechanisms to measure the effectiveness of progress and development of urban area to get to urban sustainability. In our study relied on three types of sources of urban indicators in Ramadi city, (questionnaire stady), was applied style factor analysis factor analysis on a range of urban indicators which have been identified by by the people of the city and included 41 Index Urban was divided city to 23 neighborhood depending on the distribution of the Directorate of Municipal Ramadi, the analysis was conducted using the Statistical spss v.19 and adopt the style factor analysis method of the main components of factors. Through analysis results appeared to have nine fundamentals, two of which were deleted for not adopted in the analysis for two reasons, one because the value in kind less than one, and the other because variables default factors less than 2, were named each factor analysis depending on the variables included in each factor by default, and shows The supreme importance of the variation unexplained phenomenon appears in the first factor, with a value of 27.05% and adoption in urban development priorities.

RESPONSE OF CORN (ZEA MAYS L.) PLANT TO VARIABLE WATER SUPPLY AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

Saifuldeen A.Salim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 83-93

Afield experiment was conducted during two autumn seasons, on silt loam soil texture. The aim was to study the effect of different levels of irrigation during growth stages: Normal irrigation(control) (S1), reducing water amount (eliminating one irrigation) during different plant growth stages: Vegetative (S2), flowering (S3), maturity (S4) , vegetative + flowering (S5) , flowering + maturity (S6) , vegetative + maturity (S7) , and during all growth stages (S8), of three varieties which were: Yugoslavian hybrid, Ipa hybrid 2052, and synthetic Ipa5012, on water consumptive use and grain yield, and using drought susceptibility Index (S) as a criterion index to measure the ability of different Varity to drought tolerant.. Treatments were arranged as factorial experiments with three replications using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD).. Amount of water for

Portland cement , Groundwater , Cement –Sand mortar ,Cement-Sand-Polymer mortar, Polymer

Aseel M. Mohammed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 106-112

This research includes study of the effect of groundwater on Portland cement used in making of concrete which is enter as major part in structures by making samples of cement- polymer mortar with mix proportions ( cement: sand : polymer ) (1: 3:0.05 ) , (1 : 3 : 0.07 ) and (1: 3 : 0.1 ) and normal cement mortar ( cement : sand ) (1:3). By studying the compressive strength , absorption and ultra-sound velocity. The results refer to increasing of compressive strength and ultra-sound velocity and decreasing in absorption with increasing of polymer ratio with respect to normal cement mortar at ages 7 , 14 ,28 day.

EFFECT OF DISTANCE OF SHEARING ON BODY IN WOOL PRODUCTION IN AWASSI SHEEP

yahoo.com; E-mail; majedalkareem

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2012, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 113-116

Twenty awassi ewes (Turkish and Iraqi) at the age 3-4 years were divided into four groups (5) ewes each group. Both of the first two groups (Turkish) and second (Iraqi)were shorn at a distance of 1 cm from the level of the animal's skin, and shorn of both of the two groups third (Turkish) and fourth (Iraqi) with the level of the animal's skin during the first and second year of research. All test animals fed on a diet consisting of 750 grams of barley and 2750 grams of alfalfa hay and 300 grams of wheat bran per head per day. All animals of search were washed before starting shearing the duration of the week during the two years of research to ensure dryness during shearing wool, used electric shearing machine to mow all research animals with necessary modification procedure when mow the first and second sets to do shearing at a distance of 1 cm from the level of animal skin. Did not appeared significant differences in statistical analysis results on the weight of fleece (1049; 1.069; 1.059 and 1.065 kg ) of aggregates four respectively, when mowing at the beginning of the experiment (first year). But appeared significant differences on the weight of fleece in the second group ( Iraqi awassi ) (1.076; 2.019; 1.057 and 1,060 kg) of the four groups respectively, after shearing in the second year.