ISSN: 1994-7801

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Autumn 2013, Page 1-187


STUDY OF SOME FRUIT CHARACTERS OF ORANGE CULTIVATED IN IRAQ FRUIT VARIETIES Citrus sinensis (L)

Faroon A. Hussain

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-5

This study was conducted in private orchard in Doura region- Baghdad province on Citrus fruit trees of 15- 20
years age through the agricultural season 2009 and 2010. The fruit characters were analysed (fruit weigh, fruit
juice weight, fruit skin thickness , seed number, Total soluble solid, acidity, and vitamin C content. The result
showed that Yafai var. had highest fruit of 232.40 gm, While mahli var. groupe had less weight of 129.00 gm.
The juice weight of Toroccovar.hadhigest weight 102.30 gm while the var. Moro less one 37.75 gm .Yafaoivar
gave highest level of skin thickness around 0.80 cm, While Mahli var. gave 0.42 cm thickness skin.Mahli orange
gave highest seeds numbers with 17.21 seeds/ fruit While Moro var. hadn’t seeds total soluble solid in Mahlivar
2 gave highest percentage 11.75% , whereas Torocco less percentage 6.75%. There were significant differences
in acidity that Mahli var. gave highest percentage 3.34% ,while Sukkari var. gave less percentage 0.16%.
Vitamin C content was found in highest amount in Mahly (1) var. 62.85 mg/ 100gm juice, while the Morro
var.gave 41.46 mg/100 gm juice.

ANALYSIS OF SHADING IMPACT FACTOR ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

Salih Mohammed Salih

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

Abstract:
Photovoltaic (PV) modules are very sensitive to shading effect. Unlike a solar thermal panel which can tolerate
some shading, many brands of PV modules cannot even be operated by shadow of leave which resulted in high
reduction of its output power. The effect of shading on solar PV models will be evaluated by using a simulation
model for simulating both the I-V and P-V characteristics curves for PV panels. Different percentages of shading
are taken into consideration of this paper which is: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and without shading. The irradiation
and temperature are constant during test. The results are extracted using the Matlab software. A typical Kyocera-
54W and Solara-130W solar modules are used in the simulation part. The output power of models is widely
decreased as the shading percentage increased. The Shade Impact Factor (SIF) is proportional to area of panels,
so the systems built with big panels were more affected by shading effect.

SUITABILITY OF WELLS WATER FOR AGRICULTURAL USE IN SOME OASIS IN WESTERN IRAQI DESERT

Abdulkarem Ahmad Al-alwany

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 6-12

The aim of this study is to evaluate the water of the wells existed in the three Oasis within the western desert of
Iraq, these Oasis are (Km-98, Al-kesheiti and Fehada ) located within the lower widian district. The ground
water observed during one year. Analysis were performed for water samples to be used in evaluation of water
for irrigation purposes, according to standard limits suggested by FAO. The results of analyses indicated that the
ground water of Km-98 and Al-kesheiti Oasis are classified as slightly to moderate hazard, while ground water
of Fahada was classified as hazard water. The sodium adsorption values in all water of oasis are plotted within
class S1. The toxic effect of water on plant are unlimited to moderate effect for Na, Cl, B. According to the piper
tri linear method, the ground water of Oasis classified as Calcium-Sulphate family with two major water types of
alkaline properties thoseand Na-Ca; HCO3-SO4 and Mg-Ca; HCO3-SO4 water type. The origin of the ground
water is meteoric (rainfall infiltration).

IMPLEMENTATION OF CLIMAP AND GIS FOR MAPPING THE CLIMATIC DATASET OF NORTHERN IRAQ

Sabah Hussein Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 10-27

The main objective of the present study is the construction of air temperature and precipitation maps for the
northern of Iraq through the application of contemporary Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques and
CLIMAP (CLImate Maps) software. The dataset contains monthly maximum temperatures from meteorological
stations located across the entire study area have been collected for the 29-year period 1981–2010. Several
remote sensing dataset including Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Satellite image were used as predictor
variables for GIS interpolation process. The output set of climatic maps at 90m resolution were display the
maximum temperatures for each months in the applied period for the entire study area. The maps show that, the
climatic features depends on number of the distributed meteorological stations, relief and the topographic
structures of the study area. The results also show that techniques using elevation as additional information
improve the prediction results considerably. Climatic variables and database provide an essential input for crop
growth simulation models.

INCREASING STORAGE CAPABILITY AND CHOLESTEROL REDUCING IN FERMENTED CAMEL MEAT BY LACTOBACILLUS CASEI

Amer Hussein Hamdan Alzobaay

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 13-19

Camel is a vital resource in arid, while the other animals cannot live there, and can take advantage of the camel
is not only for milk and movement but the meat is source of food for most desert dwellers countries, Camel
meat contains a high protein and the percentage of water more than beef, also with low fat 1.8 to 2.1%, Camel
meat is rich in many vitamins, especially B complex as well as it contains important minerals such as iron,
phosphorus, calcium and potassium, Camel meat is preserved in various ways fermentation, So Iraqi pastirma
was manufactured from camel meat and fat hump with a ratio of 3 meat: 1 fat, the microbiological quality of
crude meat and mixture (meat and fat) were examined, total bacterial counts were 78 × 104 and 71 × 104 cfu.g-1,
respectively, coliform bacteria 93 x 102 and 54 x 102cfu.g-1, respectively, yeasts and molds 57 x 102 and 49 x 102
cfu/g, respectively, psychotropic bacteria 74 × 102 and 69 × 102cfu.g-1 sequentially, Staphylococcus aureus 33 x
102 and 23 x 102cfu.g-1 respectively. Salmonella was not shown in each samples and pH were 5.67 and 5.74,
respectively. The amount of cholesterol was 113.0 and 216.40 mg/100g-1. Fermentation process was conducted
at a temperature of 37c° and 80-85% relative humidity for 48 hours for treatments which inoculated with Lb.
casei in both percentages 2.5% and 5% of the sample mixture after adding sugar and salt. Other materials used
were added in the manufacture pastirma which include spices and garlic, then the mixture of pastirma was

INVESTMENT POSSIBILITY TO SOME PARTS OF DESERTICAL PLATEAU FOR HEET CITY EXPANSION

Mashal Faysal ALMola

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 20-32

Multistudies appear which have Humanity constructional to many of world districts , may be that concentrate in
to area of river valleys with leaving big areas of Desert area , without construction .So become this worry for
many of responsible sides in the search about new places for spatial expansive to urban growth. This study tried
a search in master plan possibilities to Heet city areas , then toward out master plan during study appear that very
few of area possibilities and do not agree with population grow and their desire . so study research in how may
be areas expansive for Heet city and justify the code to choice a best places , and election the good alternative for
ensure achieve of the hope wanted , there for research done range from city survey work , with desert area which
city around he adopt many ways to reach to Important eddicts , As Delfy way , then distribute question air forms
, number (33) on sample from experts and civil society addition to use ways (economic cost , swing weigh ,
spatial , reaction , economic basic ) so study reached to alternative second is best toward kubaysa city of other
alternatives

A MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF POLLEN GRAINS OF SOME WILD PLANTS IN AL-FEADAH CONSERVATION AL-RUTBA,W.IRAQ

Yousry Sadoon Rashid

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-44

The present study investigates wild plant species grown in Al- Feadah conservation in Rutba . It explores the
properties of pollen grains of these species using compound microscope to isolate between families, genera and
plant species . Field visits results the four seasons of the years; 2010 , 2011 and the spring of 2012 and dozen
species, were selected have shown 12 species bellowing to 10 genera porting to 10 plant families , Results of
the study of pollen grains have indicated great changes within each of the studied properties , The study has
covered the following properties: polarization, shape, size, germination pores , Mesocolpium, value of
Apocolpium , wall thickness and its ornamentation and color . Moreover, a new species namely Limonium
axillare (Forssk.) Ktze has been recorded for first time in Iraq .

SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTENT IN LEAFLETS OF DATE PALM Phoenix dactilyfera L . IN THE WESTERN DESERT, IRAQ

Ayad W.AL-SHAHWANI

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 51-56

Study was conducted in the western desert (south east of Al-Ramadi city) to shed light on drought tolerance,
twelve of a number of already establishment field of Phoenix dactilyfera L. ( Zahde) trees which are used in this
study. Through out the best 8 years half of the trees was being irrigated regularly while the other half irrigation
was stopped two years period to the start of the experiment and contained to the end of it. Measurements on the
leaf water potential and water loss were taken during the day hours (from dawn to sunset) for several days.
Seasonal diurnal changes in total carbohydrates and other phenotypic characteristics, N and K percentage were
recorded. Dunces Multiple Range was used to separate the means at 0.5% probabilities. Changes in water
potential values, water loss, total carbohydrates, N and K percentage depended largely on irrigation vs. nonirrigation
and seasons, beside the nutrient elements were in low level in summer specially in leaflets of nonirrigation
date palms

THE CERAMIC INDUSTRY IN IRAQ:THE REALITY AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT WITH RE FERENCE TO ANBAR GOVCRNORATE

Saeed Ali Al-Ubeidy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 57-70

The Ceramic industry is one of the constructional industries that contribute to the development of the
construction sector. The quick scan of the Iraqi market shows that there are large quantities of ceramic products
of different types and specifications of different measurements. It shows too that the demand continues to
increase, particularly in recent years due to the reconstruction and the high level of per capita income. Iraq is one
of the oldest manufacturers of ceramic products, but that the Iraqi state did not pay attention to the industry
though a large proportion of the raw materials needed for production are available locally in very large quantities
and better qualities of the world as well as the availability of skilled manpower in this field. It is worth
mentioning that the Anbar province has three plants (Sanitary ware, Wall Tiles, Floor Tiles) for the production of
ceramic materials founded before the occupation. These plants, owned by the General Company for Glass and
Ceramics in Ramadi, are the only plants in Iraq and they stopped production since 2003. It is concluded that
Iraqis full ofmany of themineralsand raw materials, which are concentratedmostly inAnbar provinceand
representthe basicbackboneofthe ceramic industryin the province. But the results ofestimatingdemand show that
there isa cleardeficitin the production ofceramicmaterialsto meetthe threetypes ofincreasing demand for
thesematerials.Thedomestic demand forsanitary wareandWalls andFloors Tiles for the year 2013was (16,357)
tons (11,546,160) m 2(15,394,880) m 2, respectively, which meansthat theproduction capacitiesavailable forthe
threeplantscover only(27.5%) (10.5%), (6.5%). While in theyear 2023, the percentage of the production ofthe
threelaboratoriesofdomestic demandis(sanitary ware, 9.21%), (Tiles walls, 8.4%) and (Tiles floors, 5.2%). So,
the study is encouraging for the rehabilitation ofthe production ofceramicprojectsin the province ofAnbar, as
well asthe establishment ofnew projects that have the potentialto bridge theshortfallin the demand forthisproduct.
The results ofthe application of value criteria show that the three projects are economically useful, but the Wall
Tiles project is more useful than the other two projects. In addition, the three projects are not substitutes for they
are all urgently needed, but in case of the failure of funding the rehabilitation of all the plants, so it is preferable
to start with the Wall Tiles plant.

FUTURE ATTITUDES FOR FOOD INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN ANBAR GOVERNORATE

Talib Midib Khalaf Al-Duleimy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 71-80

The target of this research is to explain futuristic goals for developing food manufactures in Al-Anbar
governorate. These are some specifications in which due to develope these important industries as Al-Anbar
governorate has human and mate rid powers which lead to rise it. The two researchers put all the available
procedures which help to provide and exploit all the abilities according to period invest programme in food
industries sector. They find away to recure these specifications and make policies developments for all districts
in Al-Anbar governorate.

HYDROGEOLOGY OF NA'MAH- AITHAH AREA, AND THE EFFECT OF SAND DUNES ON THE RECHARGE OF GROUNDWATER

Sabbar A. Salih

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 81-100

The area of study located between (43° 53' 23") and (44° 17' 23") Longitudes and latitudes (34° 27' 19") and
(34° 46' 20"),east of Tigris river and boarded by Hamrin Anticline from north, Al Khashib valley from east and
Shari Lake from south.The climate data which recorded from Tikrit station for the period (1988-2011); The
annual average of rainfall was 169 mm, also the average of evapotranspiration has been calculated according to
Thornthwaite which indicates a water surplus about 41.35%. According the parameters of water balance the area
divided into five zones (A,B,C,D,E). The recharge has been calculated in each parts depending on soil moisture
and the surface runoff. The calculated recharge of the groundwater is about 37 m3/year.Lithological description
of wells, and hydraulic properties indicate two groundwater aquifers The shallow one located within Quaternary
deposits which is unconfined while the deeper aquifer is semi confined and located in Ingina formation.The
hydraulic properties of these aquifers calculated according to pumping test analysis, these are 1135.54
m2/day,73.334 m/day and 0.0849 for transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storage coefficient respectively.
The flow direction of groundwater is radial from the center of sand dunes, and the main flow is to the direction
of Tigris River and Shari lake depression.

PREPARATION OF CORDIERITE MINERAL FROM LOCAL RAW MATERIAL

Qasim mohammad AI-Obedi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 101-109

This study deals with the assessment of local raw materials were collected from Iraqi Western Desert : Duekhla
Kaolinitic clayston , Urdhuma silica sand , flint clay, karst bauxite and porcelnite . Another local materials were
used ( pure silica , silica from rice husk ash , MgCO3 , Mg(OH)2) .The raw material were crushed and ground to
less than 45 μ .except the kaolin and silica sand were ground to less than 45 and 20 μ . Chemical and
mineralogical analyses were carried out on the raw materials . Fifty mixture , were prepared from the above
raw materials by mixing proportions having bulk composition near to that of stochiometric cordierite .250
discoidal test tiles were formed by semi-dry pressing of 98 MPa ( 1000 kg/cm2 ) and 8% moisture content and
then fired at 1100 , 1200 and 1300 Cº with 50 Cº temperature rise per hour and soaking time tow hours . XRD
of the test tiles showed that cordierite was formed at 1200 Cº and its crystallization increaser at higher
temperatures , tiles which fired at 1300Cº containing 70% kaolin 5% pure silica and 25% MgCO3 consist
mainly of cordierite , so this mixture is recommended in this study .

EVALUATION WELLS OF WATER SUITABILITY OF ALHAWIJA AND ITS VILLAGES (KIRKUK GOVERNORATE ) FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION

Idan Ibrahem Ghdhban

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 110-114

Groundwater is one of the important source of providing the human with water for drinking the other purposes .
Twenty wells were chosen at different locations from the village and areas surrounding AL – Hawija city .
Physical and chemical tests were carried out for each water samples specifically they include : nitrate,
phosphate , total hardness as CaCo3 , total dissolved solids, chloride , PH and turbidity . The results were
evaluated and compared with Iraqi standard specification for drinking water . The results indicated that the
groundwater are not allowable for drinking use because the groundwater contented Nitrate, phosphate and high
contents of total hardness and T.D.S.

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATES ON GROWTH AND YLELD OF WHEAT GENOTYPES (Triticum durum L) PLANTED IN TWO LOCATIONS.

Hamadah Muslih Mater; Al -Fahdawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 115-122

Two environmental locations in Anbar Governorate have been chosen. Both of them are on the right bank of
Euphrates, distance between on and another is 90 km. The first location is in (sufia) arural area of Ramadi, its
soil is (sandy loam). The second location is in (zakhikha) village in Hit city, its soil (loam sand). Eight durum
wheat genotypes have been planted in December 8, 2010 as (main plots); seven mutations (7, 26, 38, 49, 53, 63,
82) and door 85 cultivar were used. The seeding rates have been used (120, 160) kg.ha-1 as (sub plots). These
factors (8×2) were used as an input with split plot design at three replicates. The aim of the experiments is to
understand growth and production of these genotypes in there two locations. Genotypes did not differ
significantly in number of tillers, while it significantly differed in plant height, flag leaf length, number of
kernelsspike, weight of 1000 kernels and grain yield at two locations and their means. Mutation 63 gave the
upper significance rates in plant height, flag leaf length and weight of 1000 kernels, while mutation 7 resulted in
the highest rate of kernel per spike at the mean of both locations. Mutations (82, 63, 49) gave higher significant
rates in grain yield at the mean locations, reached (7.3, 6.8, 6.6) t.ha-1, respectively.Variation of the seeding rates
did not significantly affect, flag leaf length, spike length and weight of 1000 kernels. Planting of 120 kg.ha-1 seed
at both locations gave upper significance means of tillers number and number of kernel per spike. While using 160 kg.ha-1 seeds resulted in high rates of plant height, grain yield at the mean of both locations which reached
80.9 cm, 6.0 t.ha-1 respectively. Ramadi - sufia location gave higher significant means in plant height, weight of
1000 kernels and grain yield. While Hit - zakhikha location gave higher means in tillers number, flag leaf length
an number of kernel per spike. Consequently, changing the planting location affects in the growth and
production of these genotypes, but this depends on the type of soil and climatic conditions, although it has grown
naturally and gave an acceptable economic yield.

EFFECT OF POULTRY AND UREA FERTILIZERS ON QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY CHARACTERS OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)

Hammad Nawaf Farhan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 123-127

The experiment was conducted in large pots size filled with 9 kg soil, using complete random design (CRD)
with three replicates in Biology Department, College of Education for Pure Science at Al-Anbar University,
Iraq, to study the effect of organic (poultry manure) and nitrogen fertilizer (N 46%) and their interactions on
productivity and quality characters of two wheat varieties (Abu-Ghraib and Ibaa 99) under pot natural
conditions. Results showed superiority of urea and organic fertilizer treatments for all studied characters. The
interaction between nitrogen fertilizer (400kg/ha) and Organic fertilizer (18ton/ha) scored high significant
percentage compared with control treatment, for Abu-Ghraib variety was: No. of grains/spike (136%), total
grain yield gm/pot (246%), total weight of 1000grains (75%), protein in grain (232%) and starch (33 %). While
for Ibaa variety was: 142%, 240%, 89%, 248% and 38% respectively. Ibaa variety was more response than Abu-
Ghraib variety.

STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF FUNGI BEAUVERIA BASSIANA ON THE ADULTS OF A HARD TICKES BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS

Ezeddin A. Albayyar

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 135-138

This study was conducted to understand the effects of fungi Beauveria bassiana on the adults of a hard tickes
Boophilus micsroplu The study shows, that both females and males of hard tickes are significantly sensitive to
the fungi`s dilutions ( 10-4×3.7 (3.7×8_ 3.7 و 10 ×6- و 10 spores.ml-1. The mortality rate was inversely
correlated to that used dilutions.After five to six days of exposure ,male`s mortality rates were 100% ,93.33% ,
76.66% where the female`s mortality rates were 100% ,90% ,83.33% for each dilutions. The highest
abnormal features for both sex were occurred at the dilution 10-4×3.7 spores.ml-1.

THE ISSUE OF IGNORING SIRWAN RIVER WITH THE EXCESSIVE USE OF GROUNDWATER IN KALAR CITY

Abdulmutalib Zardawy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 139-146

The demand of water has increased dramatically in many areas in recent decades as a result of the development
of civilization, living standards, and increasing the implementation of development projects. These activities
have led to increase the pollution of water resources, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. This study is aimed
to explore the issue of ignoring SirwanRiverthathas become a sink of human wastes, Sewage, black
water,agricultural wastewater, and industrial wastewater. Also, the river has become a sink of expired foodstuffs
and building materials which made water of river polluted. However, the amount of water (from the river) that
used for drinking and agricultural purposes are not exceeding 2.5-5% in all cases. It is of great significant (at
least) to minimize the amount of contaminated water to be discharged into the river. With ignoring SirwanRiver,
ground water has become the main sources of water supply for all sectors such as drinking, industries,
agriculture and some other sectors. The amount of water that is extracted from wells for domestic purposes is
approximately between 18250 - 26400 m3 per day. The Continuing in excessive withdrawal of groundwater may
lead to water deficit in the next few years. This requires the implementation of all available means to maintain
the current water sources. Also, it requires rationing and development in water consumption.

RESPONSE OF LETTUCE YIELD ( Lactuca sativus L. cv. Paris Island) TO MULCHING AND SPRAYING WITH LICORICE AND ALGAMIX EXTRACTS

Abd aljabar I.AL-Hubaity

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 147-157

The study was conducted during the growing season 2007-2008 to investigate the effect of soil mulching with
black polyethylene and foliar application of some natural plant extracts , i.e., Licorice at concentrations of ( 0.0 ,
1.5 and 3.0 gl-1) and seaweed extract " Algamix " from the marine algae Ascophyllum nodosum at concentrations
of ( 0.0 , 1.0 , 2.0 and 3.0 cm3 l-1 ) . Licorice extracts were sprayed 4 times (monthly intervals ) , while Algamix
was sprayed 7 times during the experiment (two weeks intervals) .
The treatments were arranged within split plots in a factorial R.C.B. Design, Planting methods were considered
as the main plots and the interactions between licorice and seaweed extracts were arranges in subplots with three
replications for each treatment . The results showed that mulching method with foliar spraying of Licorice and
Algamix extracts at concentrations of 3.0 gl-1 , 3.0 cm3l -1 respectively was superior significantly in their effects
on the vegetative growth , i.e., weight of fresh stem , stem length , fresh and dry weight of plant leaves without
stem. Increasing the head weight and total yield plant-1 by application of soil mulching with foliar spraying of
Licorice and Algamix. Significant increase was occurred in nitrogen , phosphorus and potassium percentages of
plant leaves as a result of mulching with high concentrations of Licorice and Algamix extracts. Existence of
high positive correlations between the total yield plant-1 with all studied traits with exception in flowering %.
Head weight and leaf area distinguished with highest direct effect on the total yield per plant, whereas, leaf area
and plant length had a highest indirect effects on the yield through path of head weight trait.

EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND TWO EXTRACTS LICORICE AND SOLUAMINE TO DECREASE DAMAGE OF DROUGHT AND IMPROVING YIELD PARAMETERS OF POTATO CV. LATONA

Zuhair A. Dawood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 158-167

This study was carried out at vegetables field of Horticulture and landscape department. College of Agriculture
and Forestry. Mosul University. Iraq, during spring season 2010 , to investigate the effect of water stress: two
levels of watering were applied, normal irrigation and exposing plants to water stress by no water supply during
period of tubers formation and development (46 and 76 days after planting), calcium ion at 200 mg.L-1
concentration and two natural extracts Licorice at 3 g.L-1 and Soluamine at 2 m.L-1 in additional to control, each
treatment applied three times ( first applied at full germination stage, while the second and third application were
at 20 days and40 days after the first application. All treatments added by three methods of application (foliar
application, adding to soil and foliar application + adding to soil). The experiment included 24 treatments which
conducted in a Split – plot system within R.C.B.D Design. Each treatment was replicated three times, analysis of
variance and Duncan's multiple range test at 0.05 were applied for all research data. Results obtained could be
summarized as follows: Exposing potato plants to water stress caused a significant decrease in marketable yield .
Application of calcium, Licorice and soluamine increased tuber 's number , plant yield, and marketable yield
and reduced the drought damage on yield parameters. Application of calcium and two natural extracts (Licorice
and soluamine) to the soil caused a significant increase in tubers weight, plant yield and total yield as compared
to foliar application method. Generally, application of Licorice by third method under normal irrigation was the
best interaction treatment

TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR WORKERS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN ANBAR PROVINCE ON ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMONSTRATORY GUIDANCE FIELDS

Adib Abdul-Jabbar Khair-Allah Al-Hadithi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 168-174

The establishment of demonstratory extensive fields is considered as basic stone that develop agricultural
practices. Therefore, this study aimed to: 1) identify some of the main characteristics of extension field workers;
2) determine the level of their training requirements concerning the establishment of the demonstration guidance
fields; 3) knowing the relationship between the level of requirements and the personal characteristics of workers.
The research community included all workers in agricultural extension in Anbar province who are (136)
workers. The data was collected through questionnaire form prepared for this purpose and was modified to
become as acceptable to fulfill the data for the study. The study explained that the vast majority of the workers
are the older ones and most of them graduated from agricultural preparatory, and many of them have spent more
than (25) years in the extension work, also many of them have implemented field demonstration, but a high
proportion of them did not have the information on the implementation of field demonstration, either in their
academic preparation or in their training during the service. The study pointed out the fact that a high percentage
of workers believe in the importance of extension work and field demonstration in the instructional process, also
many of them pointed out to the lack or absence of the financial and administrative support for the establishment
of extension field demonstration particularly in the past two decades. The study showed that the requirements of
workers in agricultural extension were the highest in planning to the establishment of the field demonstration
while the requirements were the lowest in technical factors concerning the crop at which the field demonstration
will be implemented. The study didn’t show a correlation between the level of requirements and each of the
factors; age, academic achievement, length of extension service, the academic specialization, the number of
training courses, The adequacy of courses, while the study showed a correlation between the needs and the
factors: the number of field demonstration implemented, how the workers believe in extension work, and belief
in the importance fields demonstration in practical guidance. Based on the results obtained, the study
recommended that its necessary to enroll the workers in the agricultural extension in the training courses
concerning how to set up the field demonstrations and allocate part of the curriculum academic preparation for
agricultural to deal with how to set up the field demonstrations and conduct further studies in the field of training
needs to put training curriculum on the basis of sound scientific to all areas of the extension work.

USING OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES TO ASSESS THE DESERTIFICATION AND ITS EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL LANDUSE: AL-GARMA (STATUS STUDY)

Izzadden G. Darwesh

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2013, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 175-181

This study was conducted to determine the manifestations of desertification in Al-Anbar province (Algarma
district), depending on the technology of remote sensing using GIS software scanning an area of 473,200 acres,
and I have used two satellite images one of them in 1990 and the other one in 2010. The results showed that
there has been a change in the area of the calculated manifestations of desertification from the two satellite
images by a visual interpretation method through insulating the map units by Arc program GIS 9.3 with the
comparison between their areas. There was an increase in sand dunes which it reached to (54 640 and 94 720)
acres in 1990 and 2010 on sequence. And the areas of salt affected soils were increased to which reached to
(87,480 and 111,960) acres for the two satellite images of 1990 and 2010. The area of cultivated land and arable
land in the study field reaching (74 720 and 67600) acres in 1990 and 2010 for the cultivated land and as for the
arable land reached to (70640and 68360) acres, for the reasons mentioned in the manifestation of desertification.