Volume 6, Issue 1, Summer and Autumn 2016, Page 1-126


THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPONENTS SOME OF DUST STORMS AND THEIR EFFECTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND DEGRADATION

Aiad Abdullah khalaf

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

The dust storms are considered as the most hazard problem in arid and semi arid regions especially Iraq was suffering of the frequency storms in the recent period. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine and investigate the properties and components of some dust storms and their effects in environmental pollution and degradation. Two samples were collected from the dust storms. Firstly, it was taken during spring season at 17-4-2011. Secondly, it was obtained at summer season on at 16-7-2011, then they had brought to the lab for analyzing and measurements for the following: Practical size distribution, Soluble ions, lime, Gypsum, Organic matter, EC, and pH. Heavy metals also were analyzed. Furthermore, mineral properties was studied in the (Clay fraction, Bulk sampling , Heavy and Light minerals in fine sand fraction) and the morphological properties (Colour of the dust storm, spectral reflectance and spectral indicator( BI, HI, CI).
Results showed that there was fluctuation in the physical, chemical, mineral, and morphology properties. The medium silty fraction were dominant in the two dust storms. Moreover, the concentrations of the soluble ions, gypsum, spectral reflectance and colour indicator were increased in spring dust storm. While clay content, CaCO3, Organic matter, pH, and EC were maximized in the summer dust storm. Heavy elements weren't varied in percentage between the two dust storms. It was also noticed that the Chlorite and Mica were dominant in the clay fraction, Calcite, Quartz and Gypsum were dominantly found in the bulky sample for both dust storms, but there's variance between a dust and another. Iron oxides and chlorite minerals were measured as heavy minerals. While quartz, Calcite and Gypsum accounted as light minerals. Thus, it could be concluded that the dust storms had significant effects on environmental pollution and degradation, due to they had potential to transport high quantities of salts and contaminated elements, so that they had environmental, economic, social and healthy effects. Therefore, it could be commended to use suitable techniques to reduce the detriment effects by planting the windbreaks.

Evaluation of Qualification of Substrates Containing Date Palm

Mustafa N. O. Alheeti

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-11

Effects of used local wastes consist of wheat straw, sawdust and date palm fibers with 5% rock phosphate as substrate of some quality and productivity of four Pleurotus spp., P. ostreatus (Grey Oyster), P. ostreatus (White
Oyster), P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus (Bright Yellow Oyster) and P. salmoneostramineus (Pink Oyster) was studied. The results showed that using mixture 2 (70% wheat straw, 20% sawdust and 10% date palm fibers) and mixture 3 (50% wheat straw, 30% sawdust and 20% date palm fibers) had significant influence to increase the following: biological efficiency with average 39.21% and 33.58%, number of flushes 2.83 and 2.75 for each bag kg wet weight), total harvest 187.6 and 176.7 g/bag, average of weight one flush 70.21 and 65.90 g and number of fruiting bodies 38.50 and 40.58 body/bag for all Oyster Mushroom species compared to control (100% wheat straw substrate)on 33.54%, 2.50 flush/bag, 154.1 g/2kg, 62.21 g, and 23.83 body/bag respectively, in despite of delay primordia appearance in these mixture, while had not any effect on thickness of cap.
P. ostreatus (Grey) was significant superiority with other species to decrease period primordia appearance to 5.11 days and increase each of biological efficiency of 47.88%, 4 flush/bag, 231.1 g/bag total harvest, 13.89 g average of fruiting body, 14.07 mm stem diameter, 49.78 mm stem length and 85.80 mm cap diameter. P. ostreatus (white strain) increased average weight of flush 75.98 g, while P. salmoneostramineus and P. cornucopiae increased superiority number of fruiting bodiesto 48.67 and 47.89 g, as compared with 22.67 and 18.00 body/bag for white and grey strain (P. ostreatus G and P. ostreatus W) respectively.

EFFECT OF COVERYE AND DIFFERENT METHODS OF THINNING ON THE SAME QUALITATIVE AND THE QUANTITATIVETRAITS DATE PALM FRUITS BARHEE AND BREEM CV.

Faroon A. Hussain

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 12-23

Abstract:

Astudy was conducted on local in private orched in Baghdad governorate. during the growing season 2010 ,to investigate the influence of bunches bagging and different methods of thinning on same the qualitative and quantitativetraits of date palm fruits on two cultivar Brim and Berhi. Date palm bunches were bagged in netted bags and thinned by eight methods. Results showed that bagging the bunches increased the total yield and average weight, size, length and width of the fruit as wellas length and width of the seed and the percentage of dry matter. The thinning method which included cutting 1/3 the bunch + removing 1/4 the inflorescence + removing 1/2 the fruits was significantly gave the highest average , weight, length, size, diameter of the fruit and seed while the lowest average of these parameter were found in the control treatment.The control treatment gave the highest total yield 74.67 kg/plant for both seasons, while the method of thinning which included cutting 1/3 the bunch gave the lowest yield 39.00 kg/plant. Control treatment gave the highest dry weight /plant while gave the lowest dry weight per tree. The influence of interaction between the variety and bagging was significantly C.v Berhi gave the highest average value of the parameters studied while the Brim on without bagging gave the lowest value. the total yield Brim of bagging gave highest 47.54 kg/plant, while the 0f without bagging gave the lowest was 40.62 kg/plant. The interaction between variety and fruit thinning was significantly the C.v Berhi on treatment seven gave the highest average in all the parameters studied while C.v Brim on control treatment gave the lowest value. The interaction between the bagging and fruit thinning was significantly the bagging and thinning method seven gave the highest average value of the parameters mentioned. The C.v Berhi with bagging on method thinning seven gave the highest average value of the parameters mentioned, while C.v Brim and without bagging on control treatment gave the lowest value parametermentioned

USING THE PEDOGEOMORPHOLOGICAL INDECES TO CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF DESERTIFICATION SENSITIVITY IN AREA SURROUNDING FOR SOME CONSTRICTION FACTORIES IN AL-ANBAR GOVERNORATE

Ali Hussain Al-Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 24-30

To characterization and classifying the environmental desertification sensitivity for some area surrounding the constriction factories within Al-Anbar governorate, and knowledge the effect of these factories emissions on desertification sensitivity range. Three cement factories they are falloji, Qubasi and A-Qaim, in addition to three plaster factories in Falloji, Al-Romadi and Heet were selected. We tried the selected all studying regions fall in the same environmental and physiographic unit. Quantities analysis method for data was used depending on some pedogeomorphological index included (parent material: slope gradient; soil depth and soil texture) all these index represent soil quality index in addition to ( vegetation cover and drought resistance) which represent vegetation quality index.
Results showed the studied regions sensitivity for desertification were distributed between 0.23 -0.80 according to limited class, they fall within very sensitive and low sensitive to desertification, with clear effect for industrialization operation which illustrated at falloji plaster factory which transformed from low sensitive to sensitive also falloji cement factory which transformed from sensitive to very sensitive to desertification.

THE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TREFLAN PASHED SPRAYING TO WEED CONTROL PERCENTAGE ON SOME MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE MACHINE BY USING MOLDBOARD PLOW 113

Basim A. Zeydan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 31-39

نفذت التجربة فی أحد الحقول التابعة لکلیة الزراعة /جامعة بغداد لدراسة تاثیر رش مبید الترفلانTrifluralin) Treflan ) على بذور الادغال باستخدام المحراث المطرحی القلاب ثلاثی الابدان و فی بعض مؤشرات اداء الوحدة المیکنیة .
استخدم معاملتین للسرع الامامیة للجرار نوع ماس فورکسن 4,37 و 7,14 کم/ساعة احتلت الالواح الرئیسیة واستخدمت معاملتین لاعماق الحراثة 17و20 , 20و22 سم احتلت الالواح الثانویة وتم استخدام المحراث المطرحی القلاب ثلاثی الابدان فی هذه التجربة لحراثة التربة ،. وتم خلال هذا البحث دراسة الصفات الاتیة: النسبة المئویة للانزلاق ،الانتاجیة العملیة ،استهلاک الوقود ، النسبة المؤیة لمکافحة الادغال . صممت التجربة بحسب ترتیب الالواح المنشقة Split- Plot Design بتصمیم القطاعات الکاملة المعشاة Randomized Complete Block Design بثلاثة مکررات واختبرت الفروق بطریقة اقل فرق معنوی (LSD) على مستوى احتمالیة 0.05 . وتلخصت نتائج البحث فی ان زیادة السرعة من (4.37 و 7.14) کم/ساعة مع ثبات العمق ادى الى زیادة کل من النسبة المؤیة للانزلاق و استهلاک الوقود و الانتاجیة العملیة والنسبة المئویة لمکافحة الادغال . بینما ادى زیادة عمق الحراثة من (17 – 22)سم وبثبوت السرعة الى زیادة کل من النسبة المئویة للانزلاق واستهلاک الوقود فی حین انخفضت قیمة کل من الانتاجیة العملیة والنسبة المئویة لمکافحة الادغال .

: Nutritional Status, Leaves, Bread Wheat, Bat Guano

Ali F.Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 40-47

Pot experiment was carried out at greenhouse belongs to college of education-university of alanbar during winter season of 2013/2014 to investigate the effect of application of different levels of bat guano (0, 4 and 8gm) on some morphological and physiological traits for two bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Cvs, one is local cv. (Aliz) another one is imported from Australia (Eratom). The experimental treatments were distributed underwith factorial experiment arrangement using completely randomized blocks with three replicates. Some nutritional status traits were measured as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carbohydrates, protein, N, P, K, Mg, Ca and Na content. Results revealed that bat guano application of 8gm was significantly superior in average of such as total chlorophyll of 6.53 mg.g-1, carbohydrate of 8.55 g.100g-1, protein of 8.87 g.100g-1, N of 1.32 g.100g-1, P of 0.46 g.100g-1, K of4.77 g.100g-1, Mg of 1.38 g.100g-1, Ca of 0.52 g.100g-1 and Na of 0.24 g.100g-1. It thus could be concluded that the application of bat guano at 8gm alone was the better than 4gm in some traits. However, the genetic affinity of local cv was dominated with 4gm application and of imported cv was to 8gm application. Therefore, it could be recommended to test the application of bat guano on the two cultivars across field environment

COMPARISON WIND EROSION DRIFTING SOIL WITH PREDICTED AMOUNT BY WIND EROSION EQUATION EAST RAZAZA LAKE

Ali Hussein Al-Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 48-57

The aim of research was a comparison between actual amount of eroded soil by wind and predicated with WEQ equation which proposed by Woodruff and Siddoway amount (1965), at eastern Razzazah lack, for this reason we selected an transect 30 kilometers length, with 3 km width, three locations were selected for modeling at dimensions of 0, 15 and 30 km, namely, site1, site2 and site3 respectively. The sand traps were laid at different higher with three replicates at every sampling location, estimated amount of drift soil was comported with estimated amount by WEQ.
Results showed soil capability for erosion were ranged between 157.5-185.0 Meq kg.ha-1, with a significant difference between studied sampling locations, site3 was exceed in erosion capability, but site 1 exceed in creep moved soil percent reached 2.09% comparison with site 3which showed lower amount reached 1.49%. According to Zachar classification (1982) these locations soils were considers very strident eroded, which needs to use essential practices to reduce eroded soil quantity. The presence of large discrepancy between the predicted values compared actual through measured the large standard deviation between both values 87.2 Meq kg.ha-1.year-1.

RESPONS OF FORAGE YIELD OF BARLEY AND CLOVER TO THE INTERCROPPING

Abdallah M. Addaheri

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 58-62

A field experiment was carried out in 2013 in one Euphrates side’s farms in west region of Iraq, 150 km west of Baghdad, using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates in order to study forage of barely (hordeum vulgare L.) and clover (Trifolium alexandrinum .L) intercropping at seeding rate Barely-Clover % (75-25, 50-50, 25-75). Dry matter (DM), land equivalent ratio (LER) and Aggressivety (A) were calculated. The results showed the following: seeding rate significantly affected in dry matter where seeding rate 75% barely-25% clover gave the highest average of DM. The intercropping has recorded values larger than 1 for LER under all seeding rates. The seeding rate 50%-50% gave highest value of LER for the sum of forage cutting. Barely showed high ability to compete which has recorded positive values of A while clover showed less ability to compete which has recorded negative vales. It can be concluded that intercropping is valuable in land exploiting

THE ROLE OF BIOLOGICAL-FERTILIZER, PHOSPHATE ROCKS AND THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THEM ON THE PHOSPHOROUS AVAILABILITY IN SOIL AND PHOSPHOROUS UPTAKE BY CUCUMBER PLANT AND ITS EFFECT ON YIELD

W. M. Aljoboory

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 63-68

A filed experiment was achieved in Abu-Ghraib during autumn season 2015 to test the activity of three types of biological fertilizer and phosphate rock as a sources of phosphorus. The treatments included ; Mycorrhiza mixed with phosphate rock, Bacillus mixed with phosphate rock, Mycorrhiza and Bacillus mixed with phosphate rock and phosphate rock alone. A 2% poultry decaying remnants was mixed to a 15 cm depth of soil and added before planting. Fertilizers was added according to the recommendations, and phosphate rock was added as a source of phosphorus.
Result indicates that the treatment of the Mycorrhiza and Bacillus mixed with phosphate rock was the best in compared with other treatments.
It gave about 12.96 mg P.kg-1 as an available phosphorus in soil, and about 0.3637% uptake phosphorus by the leaves of the plant, and about 3.943 k .ha-1 uptake phosphorus by vegetative part of the plant. The increasing of phosphorus supply of thin treatment as compared with the phosphate rock alone treatment were reached about 28.13, 23.41 and 91.40% for the phosphorus in soil, phosphorus in leaves and phosphorus in vegetative parts, respectively. Mycorrhiza treatment was in second order in compare to the to the residual treatments

STUDY VEGETATION COVER DENSITY AND URBANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND BY USING THE TECHNIQUES OF REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN SAQLAWIA CITY

Ahmed M.Mohammed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 69-81

Using a three visual satellite taken by TM and OLIsensors loaded on the US Landsat-5 and Landsat -8, for the years 1984, 2000 and 2015 year during the spring season to Study Vegetation Cover density and Urbanization in Saqlawia city. Some basic treatments conducted at the multiple times images for enhancement of these imagess.visual Interpretation, Unsupervised Classification and Spectral indices methods were used to identify different land Covers and their areas at the three years mentioned above. Method were used; visual interpretation, unsupervised classification, and some spectroscopic indices for the diagnosis of the existing land coverage in the study area and calculate the area and their proportions during the three years mentioned above.The program ERDAS (Ver.14.00.0) Program was used to achieve Unsupervised Classification, andto Calculater the values of Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the World View of Buildings Index (WV-BI), was used Arc GIS (Ver.10.2) Program. The last Program also was used to Convert the topographic map of study area to digital map through projection

RESPONSE OF WHEAT PLANTS (TRITICUM AESTEVUM L.) TO POTASH FERTILIZATION CULTIVATED IN GYPSIFEROUS SOIL.

Khalaf M. Khalefah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 82-88

Afield experiment was conducted in soil a sandy loam texture by using (RCBD) to study effect of four levels of potash fertilizer as (0 , 60 , 120 , 180)kg K.h-1 and three varieties of wheat (Abu- Ghraib , Al- Iraq , IPAA 99). The results showed that potash fertilizer significantly increased number of spikes.m-2, number of grains spike, weight of 1000 grain, grains yield and N% , K% in grains. Fourth level of fertilizing was superior increased (26.5 , 30.1 , 44.4 , 56.6 , 37.6 , 69.3 ) % respectively compared to control treatment. The variety Al-Iraq was superior for grain yield (3.501)ton.h-1 and weight of 1000 grain (36.49)g. and number of grains in spike (54.21), also the variety IPAA 99 was superior for number spikes. m-2 and N%, K% in grains (367.8 , 1.943 , 0.422) respectively. The interaction between two factors a combination (180)kg K.h-1 of fertilizer and Al-Iraq variety showed higher exceeding in grains yield (4.174)ton.h-1 , weight of 1000 grain(40.55)g. number of grains spike(59.99) and efficiency fertilization of grains yield (%) gave (60.14). While the variety IPAA 99 with this level fertilizer gave higher means for number of spike.m-2 (419.2) and percentage N , K in grains gave 2.253% and 0.503% respectively.

EFFECT OF SOME ORGANIC WASTES ADDITION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BROAD BEAN (Vicia faba L.)

Bassam Ramadhan Sarheed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 89-94

A Field experiment was conducted in Ramadi city, Al-Anbar province in the spring season 2014 to evaluate the effect of three Sheep Waste levels which were (0.5 and 10 mega gr.h-1) and three dates Waste levels which were (0.5 and 10 mega gr.h-1) on growth and yield Broad bean . Factorial experiment was conducted using (RCBD) experiment design with three replicate. study results showed a significant difference to Sheep waste levels in plant growth and yield. The level 10 mega gr.h-1 gave the highest average of plant height of plant (29.66 cm), branches numbers (7.67), dry weight of plant (12.85 gr), pods (10.11 no.plant-1), weight of 1000 seeds (2221 gr) and total yield (1703 mega gr.h-1). showed a significant difference to dates waste levels all indicators in plant growth and yield. The interaction effects between Sheep waste levels and dates waste levels was significantly affected all studied parameters and yield of Broad bean

EFFECT OF IRRIGATION SCHEDULING (IW:CPE) IN SOIL WATER , SALINITY , HEAT DISTRIBUTION AND WATER PRODUCTIVITY OF COWPEA IN MIDDLE OF IRAQ

laithfarhan; gmail.com

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 95-103

A field experiments was conducted during spring season 2015 at Agricultural field of Veterinary college- Baghdad University. In order to study the Drip irrigation scheduling for cowpea based on IW:CPE ratio and its effect on soil moisture ,salts ,temperature distribution and water productivity in middle of Iraq. Six irrigation treatment were chosen (0.6 IW:CPE , 0.8 IW:CPE , 1.0 IW:CPE , 1.2 IW:CPE , 1.4 IW:CPE , 1.6 IW:CPE). The results of Soil-water distribution showed that the soil moisture content was higher nearest to the emitter and decreased in both horizontally direction around the emitter and vertically by depth between the emitter for all treatments, moisture content relatively decreased with increasing of IW:CPE ratio, nearest to the emitter (0,0cm) in treatments 0.6 IW:CPE, 0.8 IW:CPE and 1.0 IW:CPE, the soil moisture content are higher than soil field capacity (FC) 41.3%, while the soil moisture content decreased nearest to the emitter in treatments 1.2 IW:CPE, 1.4 IW:CPE and 1.6 IW:CPE below soil field capacity. In general the soil salinity distribution (EC) was at the minimum nearest to the emitters at point (0,0) and increased by increasing the distance from the emitters in both horizontally around the emitter and vertically by depth. Horizontally, the salt content increased by increase the distance from emitter, in all treatments, and the results also showed that soil salinity distribution was the opposite of soil moisture distribution when water content is increased near to the emitter. The electric conductivity (EC) was increased by depth. It could be resulted from the showed that the same distribution of soil moisture content. There were limit variations in soil temperature between the treatments. The lowest temperature was 18.2co at (0,0cm) for the treatment 0.6 IW:CPE, while the heights value at the same point was 19 co which was for 0.6 IW: CPE treatment. The heights soil temperature 29.0co was recorded at (40,45cm) distance for 1.4 IW:CPE treatment; however the lowest value at the same distance was 21.5co for the treatment 1.6 IW:CPE. Soil temperature was increased horizontally between each laterals and emitters and increased vertically by depth too. A significant 2nd degree equation relationship with was obtained as result of interaction between the irrigation treatments and Crop water productivity (CWP), and the treatments 1.2 IW:CPE and 1.0 IW:CPE gave a significant increasing in (CWP) by 2.140 and 2.096 ton.hec-1., respectively compared with treatment 0.6 IW:CPE which gave the lowest value in (CWP) by 1.943 ton.hec-1.

EVALUATION OF THE LOCAL CLIMATE OF AL-RAMADI CITY ACCORDING TO THE HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT AND THE ROLE OF GREEN LANDS TO IMPROVE IT

Hmood G. Khaleefa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 104-114

Nowadays, there is an urgent necessity for the expanding in the green areas existed inside the cities to its role for improving the local climate and increasing its efficiency. So it lead to identify the concept of the thermal comfort and the determinants elements. Private climate was assessed according to thermal comfort requirements and investigated how it is suitable to the people who lived in the city and to show the role of these green areas for improving the local climate and increasing its efficiency. That determinants were indicated and discussed precisely. From most important results, It could be concluded that research derived:
1- The green areas can be considered as an element that motivated to balance the ecosystem inside city environmentally, healthily, beautifully, from its effect on temperature sun radiation and its control on wind speed, humidity%, in addition to its role on lessening the pollution and noise .
2- Reduced strategical importance and not realizing the importance of these green areas inside the city and the weave dealing with the social, environmental and climate elements which lead to prevent the city and its people from advantages of green areas. Thus, it could be recommended that green areas have to be increased inside city and protect them from wrongdoers. Furthermore, this study could be as trigger to treat dust storm in Iraq.

THE EFFECT OF THE SPRAY WITH IRON, ZINC AND AUXIN IN THE GROWTH AND YIELD VOLATILE OIL THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT OF THE PLANT FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL IN SOIL GYPSUM

Akeel Najim Abood AL-Mohammedi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 115-122

Plant Foeniculum vulgare mill was one of the important aromatic medicinal plants containing volatile oils used in food and food industries. Field experiment carried out during The years (2013) in the College of Agriculture / University of Tikrit Research Station in the soil of gypsum to study the four concentrations of the effect of iron and zinc (0,2,4,6 g. Liter -1) of H2O. ZnSO4 g. L -1 (Zn% 35) and iron are FeSo4. 7H2O g. L -1 (Fe% 20) four concentrations of auxin (IAA) (0, 25, 50 and 75) M.L-1 these treatments arranged in a factorial experiment by randomized complete bloke design in three replicates. The results indicated that spraying to outweigh the transaction (Fe3 + Zn3) Iron moral weight in the qualities of the growth and respectively, where gave the highest value for recipes (Plant cm height and number of branches .plant -1 dry weight of the plant (g) and the number of inflorescences .plant- 1 and number of fruits and fruit weight of 1000 (g) and yields the fruits .H kg -1) was (145.27 cm), (10.22 B.plant -1), (148.54 g), (59.48 Nora .plant -1), (239.47 fruit .nor -1), (10.94 g), (2115.95 kg.H -1), respectively, compared to the treatment comparison that gave the lowest value of the recipes mentioned in the above. With respect to the concentrations of auxin shows the results to the superiority of treatment (A3) moral qualities in growth traits and yield, where he gave the highest value of the recipes (plant height 138.11 cm and the number of branches .plant -1 dry weight of the plant (g) and the number of inflorescences nor . plant -1 number of fruits and fruit weight of 1000 (g) and yield the fruits kg.H -1) was (138.11 cm), (9.91 B. plant -1), (170.47 g), (55.28 Nora . plant -1) (265.22 fruit .nor -1), (11.36 g), 2344.78 kg.H -1), respectively, compared to the treatment comparison that gave the lowest value of the qualities listed above . which gave the third highest value of the treatments recipes volatile oil qualitative and weight ratio the refractive index was (1.73% and 0.939 and 1.451), respectively, compared to the treatment comparison that gave the lowest value of the recipes above, either in terms of proportions of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iron) in the plant has outperformed the fourth treatment where gave values of (1.19) and (0.31) and (2.50) and (36.17) and (53.58) and, respectively, compared to the treatment comparison that gave the lowest value of those proportions. as with respect to the concentrations of auxin results reveal the existence of significant differences between the concentrations in their influence in oil content and proportion of nutrients in the plant, where he gave a fourth treatment highest value for the ratio of volatile oil quality, weight and refractive index and percentage of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iron) was (1.85%) and (0.947) and (1.46) and (1.33 ) and (0.37) and (2.56) and (36.58) and (55.87) and, respectively, compared to the treatment comparison that gave the lowest value for the recipes the above . that effective compounds that analyzed the device (the HPLC) where he gave a fourth treatment of interaction between the iron and zinc and auxin (Fe3 + Zn3 and A3) a higher concentration of the active ingredient (α-pinene, Methyl chavicol, Anethol, Fenchone, Limonene) was (4.40) and (4.15) and (13.98) and (15.88) and (12.08), respectively, compared to the treatment comparison

EFFECT OF SOAKING WITH GIBBERELLIN IN SOME GERMINATION TRAIT OF FUNNEL SEEDS

Enad Khaleel Ibrahim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 123-126

A laboratory experiment was carried out in laboratory of filed crops- University Of Anabr (Abu-Gharaib) in order to study effect of Funnel seed soaking with gibberellin. The experiment included three GA concentration (0, 100, 200 mg L-1) as well as dry seed. Germination ratio, germination velocity, radical and pulmule length were tested. The experiment conducted in completely randomized design (CRD). The results were summarized as following: - Soaking with GA showed significant effect in all studied traits, Concentration of 200 mg L-1 of GA gave highest average of germination ratio (88.73%), germination velocity (1.31 seed day-1) and radical and pulmule length (2.71 and 6.35) respectively.