Volume 7, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2017, Page 56-116


EVALUATION OF LAND DEGRADATION FOR HORAN VALLEY BY USING SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE INDICES

Muthana Khalil Ibrahim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 56-63

The study was aimed to evaluate soil degradation in Horan valley the greatest in western desert of Iraq as evidence of degradation degree using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land degradation index (LDI) for three periods (1984, 1999, 2013). The study showed that moderate degradation in NDVI index occupied the most area within the area of change values 11044.7 km 2 which formed (61%) of the valley area, while the sever and very sever degradation proportions were 28.5% and 10% and occupied area (5126.75 and 1794.47) km2 respectively as a result of time series mentioned above, while the area of sever change in soil degradation increase of (8990.57) km2 ie 50% of the valley area in correspond with 2789.74 and 6185.56 km2 of the valley's area. as increase percent of 15% and 34% for very severe and moderate change with

PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA INFUCTION IN AL RUTBA REGION/ AL ANBAR GOVERNORATE AND STUDY OF EFFECT EXTRACT OF FRANKENIA PULVERULENTA ON PARASITE

Suad Shallal. SH

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 64-71

This study includes a survey for Entamoeba histolytica parasite infestations that test 782 stool sample its collection from patients visited AL- Rutba hospital and health centers in AL-Rutba city from 1/10/ 2017to 1/4/2016 and relationship the infection with age, sex, accommodation area, educational status and the sources of the water. Results indicted a total infection percent was 58.3% , the infection percent in males was 69.65% which was higher than the infection percent in females which was 46.31%, the highest infection percent was 76.4% at age (1-10) years. While the results showed that the incidence of infection in the countryside was higher than in the city where it reached 70.43 and 46.31%, respectively. The results also indicated that the parasite in the well water was higher than in the water of the dam, dam water and filter water, with( 78.6, 76.7, 73.5 and 20.7)% respectively. The study included effect of alcoholic and water extract of Frankenia pulverulenta with various concentrations on the growth of Entamoeba histolytica in culture, the results indicated that the concentration 1%, 0.7% of alcoholic extract and the concentration1% of water extract during a processing period 24 hours is more effective on growth of the parasite with percent 100% compared with control (0%) , the imp ad of alcohol extract is batter the water extract.

SOIL MINERALOGICAL IDENTIFICATION IN PRIPJ REGION AS A SAMPLE FOR IRAQI SOUTHERN DESERT

Ali H. Al-Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 72-83

To study and identify soil minerals in the arid regions of Iraq, a transect of seven pedons distributed in Pripj region, which forms the largest trough in the southern desert of Muthanna province, was selected, the pedons were morphologically described and obtained disturbed soil samples from every horizon for the purpose of conducting some mineralogical analysis. Results of mineralogical analysis of the very fine sand showed supremacy of the light minerals, which formed more than 93% in comparison with the heavy minerals. The light minerals showed the supremacy of quartz in all the studied pedions horizons, followed by Feldspar and gypsum respectively, also the presence of fragments of different rocks types was noticed, especially carbonates, chert and mudstone rocks. Weathering index for light minerals by soil quartz content over feldspars mineral showed values ranged between 11.6-33.1, the results of this index showed higher values in the high topographic regions, in comparison with the pedons in the low regions of the trough which were characterized with a different pattern of the other pedons. Whereas the percentage of the heavy minerals ranged between 2.09-7.55% with an average of 4.99%, with a clear increase in the registered values of the low regions pedons in comparison with the high regions pedons, the results also showed that one of the most important identified minerals in the studied pedons is the opaque's minerals' group which showed the highest percents in the heavy minerals group, with similarity in the quality of the heavy minerals and difference in the quantity of the studied pedons soils, which indicates that these soils are resedimented. To study the weathering intensity of the heavy minerals (easily weathered minerals/resistant minerals to weathering), the ratio between(Carnet+ Tourmaline/ Amp bole + Pyroxene) was used as a weathering index. The results showed weak differences in the weathering index percents of the heavy minerals for all the studied soils. Also we counted the index minerals percent which included the sum of resistant minerals( Carnet + Rutile + Zircon + Tourmaline) this percent was corresponding with preceding percent, and showed raising in the surface horizons.

EVALUATION OF SOME CARAWAY CULTIVARS PERFORMANCE USING TERNARY PLOT AND AMMI BIPLOT TECHNIQUE

Ali F.Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 84-91

Adaptability of Plant species (crops) cultivars could be characterized using their performance via certain trait over given environment. Thus, multi methods were applied to investigate this adaptability ofv10 cultiraj from caraway. Therefore, ternary plot conducted out at first time in middleeast especially in Iraq to test ten cultivars of caraway adaptation via carvone% and its yield (kg.ha-1) across two locations, Fallujah and Ramadi for two successive seasons, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 to become four environments. AMMI biplot laid out to support ternary plot. Past software used to construct ternary plot graphs. Also cropstat 7.2 software to extract cultivars and envirronments biplots. Results reveald that ternary plot method sorted cutlivars into three categories relied on carvone% viz non-adaptable cultivars included G4. While the other two categories involved cultivars those had two behavors once adaptable again non-adaptable that located on straight line between Ibottom and Itop the last one included cultivars that once behad near to Itop again to Imiddle that located on mid of triangle. According to carvone yield, G3 is semi-adaptable across four environments, whereas, AMMI Biplot precisely showed that G3 and G7 were most adaptable over most evnvironments. Thus, G7 was the most adaptable genotype.

EFFECTS OF LAND AND WELL WATER EXPLOITATION IN FERTILITY CHARACTERIZATION IN ABUGRIB SOILS

Farhan Mohammed Jassim Al - Thiabi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 92-103

This study included knowing effects of land and well water exploitation in fertility characterization. The region of the study is characterized with dry climate and Level to nearly level slope. After field investigation about the nature of agricultural exploitation in the region as well as management method, four agricultural systems were chosen where their age not less than 10 years in order to get to the homogeny status in management manner. Five pidons were digged in study area. Soil samples were taken from each characterized horizon in order to study physical, chemical and fertility characterization while water samples, they were taken from wells water. The results showed the following: 1-The results showed that the EC for surface horizons which were used agriculturally between( 0.82 – 2.3 dS. m-1) while the surface. 2- The results showed tangible increase in soluble ion concentration of anions and cations in soil solution. The values of Calcium were between( 14 – 19.5 centimole charge kg-1) while magnesium values were between ( 6.9 – 11.4 centimole charge kg-1 ) while sodium values were( 6.3 – 19.2 centimole charge kg-1), potassium values were between (0.24 – 0.35 mg kg sol-1). Bicarbonate values were between (3.5 – 5.6 centimole charge kg-1) sulphate values (4.5 – 12.2 centimole chage kg-1) while chlorides values were between (17.7 – 29.3 centimole charge kg-1). 3-Available nitrogen in the study soils values were between (16.4 – 36.2 mg Kg soil-1), available phosphorus (13.95 – 43 mg Kg soil-1), available potassium (190.7 – 225 mg Kg soil-1), available iron (5.3 – 7.5 mg Kg soil-1) and available zinc (0.58 – 6.6 mg kg soil-1) and for all soils. 4-The results of the study showed that EC values for used in irrigation (well water) were between (2.2 – 4.30 dS. m-1) and pH (7.3 – 7.5). The values of SAR were between (1.6 – 4) and the classification of study water according to (USDA ,1954) was within (C3- S1)

THE EFFECT OF SEVERAL LEVELS FORM MAGNESIUM APPLICATION FOLIAR SPRAY ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT PLANTTriticumaestivum L. (var. fatah)

Sameer Sarhan Alrawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 104-108

This experiment has been carried out in the Biology Dept.- Collage of Education for Women –University of Anbar during the winter Season 2012_2013, The aim has been to study the effect of several levels of magnesium (0, 100, 150, 200 and 250)mg.L-1Mgo , Application foliar spray on some morphological properties of wheat plant leaves (Fatah) which include No. of branches, No .of leaves, leave area, dry weight of the vegetative part and dry weight of the roots. The experiment has also included (CRD) was used at three replicates for each treatment. Flowerpots with a capacity of (8) Kg of soil have been prepared ; frtilizers have been added to wheat (TriticumaestivumL.) according to recommendation. The sprayed on plant leaves, seven times each levels oh added magnesium, one spraying for each ten days. The results could be summarized as follows. Increasing levels of magnesium addition had significantly; addition magnesium level at 200 mg.L-1. No of leaves Value was; (11 leaves.plant-1) of leave area, (46 cm2) of dry weight of the vegetative part (81 gm) dry weight of the roots, (16gm), except No. of branches where addition level at 250 mg.L-1 the excelled, and the highest value was (3.8 branch.plant-1).

PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII PARASITE AND THEIR CAUSES IN AL- RAMADI CITY AL- ANBAR GOVERNORATE.

Suad Shallal Shahatha

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2017, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 109-116

This study includes a survey for Toxoplasma gondii parasite infestations that check 180 blood samples its collection from pregnant women which arriving to ramadi general hospital for women and chilidran and some helth center in ramadi city through year 2012 and relationship the infection to age , aducation level , year months , number of projection and the type of projection . it,s leads to the results whole are 45.55% , as complete check 84 blood smear from men its was 36.90% and included examination 138 blood smears of animals ( 68 from sheep and 70 from cows ) it was the infection 41.30% . And through check 120 soil samples its collection from diffrents regions of Ramadi city its score parasite infection of T.gondii 32.50% . and it’s was score of cats 50% that check 112 samples smear feces its collection from different regions of Ramadi city .