Volume 8, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2018


COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY FOR SEEDS OF SOME PLANT SPECIES OF WILD DICOTS GROWN IN SEFFEN MOUNTAIN – ERBIL

Ali Hussein Issa Moussaw; Khansaa Khairi Al Kubaisi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-9

Four types of seeds belong to four genera four families have studied which are from the wild types of Dicots growing in the study area at the mountain in of Seffen in Erbil province. The study included morphological and anatomy characterization for seeds in Shape, Color, Dimension, Surface configuration, Site of hilum and its shapes , Type of embryo and its shape and type, Radical and Dicots shapes and its dimensions, Thickness of seed coat and number of layer and thickness and shape of cells in each layer, and location of storage nuttition whether in endsperm or in the emberyo tissue, The fruits have been characterized by (form, type, dimensions, number of seed in every one). The results of morphological study for seeds showed wide variation among studying species , the results (Ovoid, Obovate, Pyriform, Semi spherical shape) and the color of seeds were(Reddish brown – Dark brown, Yellowish Brown, Yellowish Green), and type of Surface decoration were (granular, Membrane with papillae, Rough with veins tangled) The high average for length of seed was 2.8 mm in Salvia Spinosa and less length was (1.5) mm in Helianthemum salicifolium. The high width was 2.75 in Salvia Spinosa and the less width was (1.1) mm in Helianthemum salicifolium. The results of anatomy showed wide difference between studied species in thickness of seed coat a high thickness which (70) μm in Alyssum strigosum and the thicness one was (37.5) μm in Helianthemum salicifolium, the histological section for seed coat has cuticule layer for species (Melilotus alba, Salvia Spinosa) with difference in thickness between species and was not found in another studding species, Gelatinous or semi gelatinous layer founded in species (Helianthemum salicifolium, Alyssum strigosum) and was not found in another species. The results of manual anatomy for seeds and embryo present the Foliate type are showed in all studied species, the embryo shape was (Oblong, Elliptic, Sub circular – elliptic)

THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM ARTEMISIA HERBA ALBA GROWN WESTERN LRAQ

Ashwaq T.H. AL-Rajab

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1-7

Nowadays, medicinal plants used in folk medicine are increasingly studied and used on pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical fields,wormwood Artemisia herba -alba is one of traditional medical characterized by scientists of preservation its wealth in different composition which led to the definition of several chemotypes the main objectives of this work were to evaluate the antioxidant activity of aerial part of wormwood, the plant had been refractive index of the order of 0.911 and 1.66.The qualitative and quantitive phytochemicals detected were alkaloids, tannis, saponin, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates in moderate amount (12.8, 9.42, 10.65, 6.8 and 11.5) respectively. Antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract the weeds was determined against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the results revealed a potential antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria, The activity of ethanolic extract had been highest an Minimal inhibitory concentration of 50 mg mlˉ¹against Staphylococcus aureus had 4.7 cfu mlˉ¹, and lowest in E.coli had 2.8 cfu mlˉ¹. The results it could be extracted that wormwood possesed an interesting effects and had been promising use as a natural source of antioxidant andantibacterial agents.

MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS AND DETERMINE EFFECT OF CULTIVARS, DATES OF PLANTING AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS IN PERCENTAGE AND SEVERITY INFECTION OF BIGEMINIVIRIDAE TOMATO YELLOW LEAF CURL VIRUS (TYLCV) ON TOMATO IN FIVE DESERT AREAS OF IRAQ

Maadh .A. AL-fahad

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 8-18

A survey of Bigeminiviridae Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) in five desert areas of Iraq (Basra, Kut, Najaf, Baghdad and Saladin) to molecularly diagnoses and determine the proportion and severity of the virus on common and hybrid tomato varieties, as well as dates of appearance of the virus. Bigeminiviridae Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was molecularly diagnosed for the first time in Saladin by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), as well as the symptoms caused by virus on host and transport by Bemisia tabaci . the result showed the efficiency of molecular diagnosis in very precise detection of the virus ,where a virus appeared for each primer used in molecular diagnosis .Two primers were used in the diagnosis of the virus of different sizes which indicates the presence of virus in Plants taken from fields and artificial infection plants . The highest increase in percentage and severity of infection in province of Basra, which amounted to 96, 4 and 30,3 for normal and hybrid varieties at beginning of August respectively, and amounted to 4,55 and 5,2 at beginning of October respectively, and was lowest in the province of Saladin . The study showed that the date of cultivation at beginning of August was highest in proportion and severity of injury compared to second date of cultivation at beginning of October.

EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FIVE CULTIVARS OF BREAD WHEAT

Basim A. Ziydan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 10-15

Economical wheat yield increase had become urgently necessity with conservation of soil production. This is necessary so it is to apply many techniques such as regularization of agricultural machinery. Thus, this research study conducted to derive the growth and yield of five wheat cultivars over two tillage systems. Where the trial contained two factors, those are the first is cultivars viz. adena, azar, pura, cymto and Iraq, the second one is two tillage systems viz. tillage and non-tillage. The levels of two factors were subjected to randomized distribution using split block design in RCBD with three replicates. Results derived that Azar performance was the most superior in plant height of 96.34 cm, flag leaf area of 654.39 cm2, spike length of 12.67 cm and grains no of 57.83 grain spike-1. While Cymto was gave the biggest grain weight per spike of 3.02 g spike-1. Adena was superior in thousandth grain weight of 91.17 g and experimental unit yield of 770.20 g 4 m-2. Furthermore, tillage achieved the best plant height of 93.87 cm, flag leaf area of 544.50 cm-2, grain weight per spike of 2.41 g spike-1, thousandth grains weight of 62.53 g and experimental unit yield of 781.10 g. Moreover, interaction has significantly effect that Iraq cv was superior in plant height of 100.67 cm under till system, whereas Azar gave highest flag leaf area of 686.22 cm2 and spike length of 13.67 cm under no-till. Cymto was superior in grains weight per spike of 3.16 g spike-1 and experimental unit yield of 981.10 g 4 m-2 under till system. Adena was achieved the heaviest thousandth grains of 144.00 g under till system.

GREEN AREAS IN RURAL OF RAMADI: COMPARATIVE GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY

Latif Mahmoud Hadid

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 16-29

The research included twenty agricultural districts located on both sides of the Euphrates River within the sedimentary plain in Ramadi. The task of research is to trace the green spaces in the province, which represents the countryside of the center of Ramadi, and to show their reality and development in terms of expansion or decline, because of its importance and the consequent significant returns affecting human life on the environmental, scientific and economic level and Social development. Green areas and other non-green areas were identified by satellite imagery for the years 1995, 2005 and 2015.

THE EFFECT OF SOWING METHODS, FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH IRON AND ZINC ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF Vigna radiata L.

Hadeel Sabar Hamad

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 30-35

Field experiment was carried out in Hesai villaje district, Anbar governorate during autumn season at 2012 in order to study the effect of planting methods and foliar application with Zn and Fe in some growth and yield at muny bean. The experiment was applied according to factorial arrangment in R C B D with three repli cations. The experiment included two planting methods (Line and Furrows) and four foliar application treatments (0, 150 Fe and 100 Zn and 150 Fe + 100 Zn mg l-1(. The results summarized as follow: The planting method at Furrows was significanthy superior in plant height, number at branches, number at pods , seed yield in comparison with line method. The foliar application with Zn and Fe (150 Fe + 100 Zn mg L-1) significanthy affected in plant height, number at branches, biological yield, Number of pods per plant, weight of 100 seed and seed yield which the control treatments gave the lowest average at forementioned traits. The two way interaction between the two factors at study did not show any significant effect in all traits under study

TESTING THE ABILITY OF SOFT WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE FORMATION OF TILLERS

Hamada M.M ALFahdawi; Mohammed Hamada Muslih

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 36-40

The ten genotypes of soft wheat (Abu Ghraib, IPA 99, IPA 95, Sham 6, AL-ezz, Al-Rashidia, AL-Fath, Sham 4, Sham 8, and wheat 17) were planted in a sandy soil to test their ability to form tillers. Genotypes were laid out with randomizing completely block design with three replicates. Seeds were planted in an experimental unit of 1 m2 and 25 x 25 cm in length with one grain of wheat. In order to make enough of plants freely enough to ensure maximum production of tillers. The results were summarized as following: Sham 4 was significantly higher in the formation of tillers rate of 21.9 tiller, and plant yield 31.2 g compared with other genotypes. Al-ezz and Al-Rashidia were significantly higher plant height of 83.3 and 76.8 cm respectively. Al-Rashidia was higher for average area of flag leaf and the length of the spike was 49.8 cm2 and 20.0 cm respectively. Genotype (wheat 17) recorded significant increasing higher than of average chlorophyll (SPAD) 60.0 and the number of grains in the spike was 63.7 grain. While superiority of Al-ezz significantly to give highest rate of weight 1000 grains amounted to 36.0 g. Conclude from results that the increase in the number of tillers in plant was a reason to increase its harvest, especially tillers which produce fertile spikelets.

PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF THE RUTBA- DAM REGION IN WEST OF IRAQ

Mohammed O. Mousa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 41-55

This study aimed to identify the plant biodiversity of the Rutba – Dam region in Western Desert District, Twelve surveys field trips were conducted during 2013 and 2014, In addition to 3 trips were done during 2017. 475 plant samples were Collected during, they were diagnosed with the Flora of Iraq and neighboring countries(Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt). The study showed the distribution of 103 plant species belonging to 85 genera belonging to 32 plant families, A list of plant species that included some important traits and characteristic were prepared, Astragalus L. genus has shown its sovereignty as a principle of numbers, which are 6 species. The study of the geographical affiliation for plant species resulted in recording of 26 species (Dual geographical region) belonging to Irano – Turanian / Saharo – Sindian Region , Other regions came in close proporation and decreasing number of species . The case study of distribution indicates that there are 52 common species, Followed by 29 species medium – distribution, Then 18 species rarely, Finaly 4 species very rare, They may be on their way to extinction. The results of this study are recording of the distribution of 12 plant species recently to the study region (After the construction of the Dam), In addition to the distribution of two new species to the western desert district , namely Cousinia wesheni Post and Geranium tuberosam L., The study also recorded a new species of Iraq is Telephium spharospermum Boiss. Plant samples were deposited for all species in Herbatium of Anbar university, as well as deposit of some sample of the new species in the Iraqi National Herbarium in 59286.

EFFECT OF SPRAY OF G.GANA AND BIO HEALTH ON SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF LOCAL ORANGE CITRUS SINENSIS L. SAPLINGS

Anwer T. Ghaffoori

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 56-63

Lathhouse trial was laid out at Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Abu-Ghraib during growth season of 2017 to investigate the effect of spray the sapling of orange with two organic fertilizers (G.GANA and Bio health) on some growth traits. Thus, 81 saplings were chosen those their age was two years. They were homogenous as possible as it could in vegetative growth grafted on sour orange. Factorial experiment was applied )6×6( with three replicates using three saplings for each experimental unit. First factor was application of G.GANA with three levels of G0 (0.00 g.L-1), G1 (0.75 g.L-1) and G2 (1.50 g.L-1). Second factor included Bio health with three concentrations of B0 (0 g.L-1), B1 (2 g.L-1) and B2 (3 g.L-1). Results revealed that G.GANA significantly superior in growth of local orange, especially as they were sprayed with 1.50 g.L-1 where they achieved the highest of plant height increment of 60.98cm, leaves no. increment of 79.8 leaves.sapling-1, leaf dry matter ratio of 61.81%, leaf area of 12.25 cm2 and sapling leaf area of 2395.56 cm2.sapling-1, respectively. Bio health was distinguished as the best with level of 3g.L-1 were gave the highest average of plant height increment of 59.39cm, steam diameter increment 4.9mm,leaves no. increment 78.4 leaves.sapling-1, leaf dry matter ratio 60.49%, leaf area 12.11 cm2 and sapling leaf area 2120.09 cm2.sapling-1. The two interactive combinations of G2B2 were the best on most traits.

EFFECT OF IAA AND BAT GUANO ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF MEDICINAL PUMPKIN Cucurbita pepo var.styriaca

Hala F.Khazael

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 64-72

Plastic house trial was conducted at Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture, Abu-Ghraib, the alternative location of Anbar University during fall season of 2016 to investigate the effect of indole acetic acid as foliar spray at 50 mg l-1 and bat guano as soil application at 10 and 30 gm per plant on growth and yield for medicinal pumpkin. Consequently, Treatments were randomly distributed as one way factor using RCBD with three replicates. Results pointed that bat guano applied with 10gm per plant was superior in stem length of 5.42m, nodes per stem of 54.97 nodes stem-1, leaf area of 389 Dcm2, chlorophyll content of 94.91 SPAD and leaves no. of 92.30 leaves plant-1. Furthermore, bat guano application gave the best average of fruit no of 14.00 fruit 2 m-2, seeds per fruit of 527.30 seed fruit-1, seeds weight per fruit of 77.80 gm, 1000 seeds weight of 282.90 gm and fruit weight of 4.544 kg fruit-1. Moreover, it reduced days upto first male flower emergence of 43.27 days, the arrangement of node that first male flower appearance of 2.13 and days upto first female flower emergence of 26.57 days. It also increased female flower no of 6.33 female flower and female sexual ratio of 0.81%. Finally, it reduced male flower no. of 7.77 male flowers.

REGIONAL ANALYSIS FOR THE SPECIFICATI ONS OF SOIL AND WATER RESOURCE IN HADITH CITY

Firas Fadhel Mehdi Al Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 73-96

Throughout this study, it has been found that the physical and chemical characteristics are one of the elements that affect soil and water. It has also shown that clay soil was found on the right side of the area of investigation Haditha and Haqlaniya whereas the solid soil was spread on the left in Barwana. Such kind of soil was also classified as being solid and less solid as a result of the.... The study has also revealed the different depth of wells and underground water level in the area of study that result from the difference in the rain fall percentages. Sometimes it reaches more than( 180)ml in the right side of the study site whereas it has leveled to in the left side to( 52) as a maximum.. The percentage of salt in the examined wells which is different according to the nearness to the place of underground water and the different rate of underground water speed inside the rocks cracks has been shown..Underground water has been classified according to the value into neutral and severe .......... as a result of the different types of rocks that contain ions and chemical elements