Volume 8, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2018


EFFECT OF BIO-FERTLILIZER AZOTOBACTERCHROOCOCEUM,GLOMUSMOSSAE AND FERTILIZERS RECOMMENDATION LEVELS IN ABSORBED QUANTITY OF SOME NUTRIENT ELEMENT IN POTATOES TUBERS SOLANUM TUBERSAM L. ANDITS CONCENTRATION IN SOIL

Salam .M. Abad; IdhamAli Abed; Fawzi M. Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1-14

Field experiment was conducted at one of the private agricultural field private of Al-Jazira – Al-Boasaaf area, west of Ramadi, in loamy soil texture to investigate the role of A. chrococcum and G.mossae biofertilizer, as single addition or in combination with NPK (chemical fertilizers) to increase the availability of concentrations of nutrients in the soil and the absorbed amount in potato tuber CV. Burren. The result showed that the bio-fertilizer A. chrococcum, G.mossae and NPK as individual addition led to a significant increases of the nutrients average concentrations in both soil and plant. The three factor interaction between A. chrococcum,G.mossae, A. chrococcum and chemical fertilizes achieved the highest concentration in increasing of nutrients ( N, P, K, Fe and Zn) in the soil and potato tuber compared with all other study factor, comparing to the complete(100%) of fertilizer recommendation by ( 78.67, 33.67, 260, 14.18 and 1.23) mg kg-1except of the Zn elements which approached to the maximum value in 75% level of fertilizer recommendation used. The amount of absorbed nutrients in potato tubers reached to a highest rate when 75% level of fertilizer recommendation which, was used by CX ( 128.5, 35.99, 236.97, 0.983 and 0.246) kg ha-1, respectively.

SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOME SOIL PROPERTIES FROM EAST Al- HAFFAR PROJECT USING KRIGING METHOD

Aseel A. T. Noman; Muthana K. I. Al- Riffay

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 15-21

Semi-detailed soil survey map, for east Al-Haffar project, which Located in Al-Dewania governorate. The land of this project Located between is of longitude (°44 51- 00= , °44 38- 00=) and latitudes (°33 38- 00= and 33° 57- 30=). The area of this project was 50000 hectare which was surveyed in 2015 by Ministry of Water Resources Department of Ecological Studies. Ninety two Soil pedon were Chosen. The spatial variability of some physical and chemical and morphological properties was studied using kriging method. The results were as follows: The spherical model was more suitable to describe soil properties. The soil samples number that represent studied transect was between 5 – 28 samples, while the low sample was for SAR content in the case of spatial dependency. Furthermore, number of samples was larger than 771 samples (randomizing low dependency,) which was the highest number was for Gypsum.

SPATIAL -TEMPORAL AND VARIATIONS OF THE SOIL SALINITY INDEX IN THE MUTHANNA AGRICULTURAL PROJECT USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TECHNIQUES

Abdulkareem Ahmed Al-Alwani; Mohamed A. H. Alany; Huda M. S. iAl-Qais

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 22-30

The current study is based on the analysis and monitoring of spatial and temporal variations in some of the soil characteristics of the Muthanna agricultural project located north of the city of Samawah, where analyzed the maps of the physical units and salinity maps of the project and identified the sites of pedons and excavation Auger hole required field implementation, the project lies within the province of Muthanna, an area of 12050.5 Ha quarter. Some of the physico-chemical characteristics of the sample samples were analyzed for each physiographic unit. The satellite images of the project for the years (2017, 2002, 1992, 1982, and 1972) were classified by a non-directed classification and entered by Arc Map. The salinity index , The values of the saline index (SI) were found according to the formula proposed by Khan et al. (2005) was studied for information on the amount of variation of the indicator during the monitoring stages and it became clear what follows: The saline index values in 1972 reached a maximum of 15.71 in the unit of River levee soils (RL), the Irrigation levee (IL) and the Silted Haur soils (SH), followed by the (H) Haur soils unit at 13.96, and the low by 13.41. The lowest value was recorded in the River basin soils (B) unit at 13.34. In 1982, it was the highest value in the marshland and river basin unit at 13.49, followed by the two rivers and (IL) by 12.96 and the lowest by 11.95. The lowest value was in the unit of the (SH) by 8.77, and in 1992 the highest value of 14.28 in both the (H) units and rows of (IL), followed by 13.16 in the unit of rivers. The lowest value was 10.19 in each of the units, such as irrigation channels, docks and (SH). In 2002, the highest value was 17.41 in the (H) unit, followed by 15.87 in the low unit, the (H) and (RL), by 11.24, the basins were 8.4, 6.05 per unit of (IL). In 2017, the highest percentage was found in the low soil unit at 19.74, followed by the 19.04 (H) , the (RL), the (IL) and the (B) at 17.72. As for the lowest value, it reached 12.97 in the unit of the (SH), The final result of the soil salinity index from 1972 to 2017 and most of the geomorphological units was of progressive values in relation to the deterioration of the soil of the project through the years of study

EVALUATION OF THE SELECTED NEW CITIES BY USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY METHOD STUDY AREA:THE WESTERN DESERT IN ANBAR PROVINCE

Thaer Shaker Mahmood

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 31-44

The appropriate spatial development planning policies have played a vital role in activating spatial development processes where appropriate choice given positive results in the spatial signature of more new desert cities suitable for achieving sustainable development of previous and the development of methods in this area. Therefore, choosing the cities mull new desert according to the priorities resulting from the applying the method of hierarchical analysis method the arbitrator by experts from stakeholders and stakeholders to achieve the aim of spatial statistical test after the statistical test and non-random alternatives and acceptable degree through the application of the test mechanism in hierarchical analysis method and comparing analysis by experts view matrices. Four sites were proposed for the new desert cities Western desert province of Anbar governorate by previous literature and Anbar as planning studies in the region and planning experts.

ISOLATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF BACILLUS MUCILAGINOSUS FROM SOIL RHIZOSPHERE AND TEST ITS EFFICIENCY TO SOLUBILIZE POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS

Asmaa S. Hussein; Hassan Ali Abdul-Ratha; Hameed Ali Hadown

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 45-52

Isolation and diagnosis of bacillus mucilagionsus bacteria was done from different location of the rhrizospher soils. The diagnosis included studying the microscopical and biochemical properties for these isolates. The laboratory study included testing the isolates efficiency of isolates for solubilize potassium compounds in liquid and solid media (Modified Aleksandrov agar medium) and determination of its solubility coefficient. Results of isolation and diagnosis for 19 samples of rhizosphere soil planted with different crops (wheat , barley and vegetable crops)showed that only 7 isolates were dissolve potassium compounds with different degrees .The results of microscopical test showed these 7 isolates were rod-shape, gram positive, capsulated spore former and motile. On the other hand, the results of biochemical tests which include Catalase test, urease test, utilization of Glucose, Voges proskauer test, H2S production, utilization of ornithine, Nitrate reduces enzyme production, phenylalanine deaminase production, Lysine utilization, Gelatinase test and oxidase test. In addition to cultural properties showed that these isolates belong to bacillus mucilaginosus .Results showed that these isolates differ in their potassium solubility index with the range 1.22 to 2.25 while the sugar in the media effect on these solubility and glucose gave the superiority.

EFFECT OF LOCAL BIOFERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis AND Bacillus mucilaginosus AND IMPORTED BIOFERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF POTATO Solanum tuberosum L.

Hadeer Adnan Salih Radhi; Hassan Ali Abdul-Ratha; Hameed Ali Hadown

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 53-65

The Field experiment was conducted at the research station – college of Agriculture – university of Baghdad / Al Jadria in 2016 -2017 using Randomized complete block design. The experiment consist of 12 treatments with three replicates , field experiment include the following factors , the first factor was biofertilization ) local and imported) , the second factor was the addation of 2 Level of chemical fertilizer (75% and 50%) of the recommended level , while the third factor include using of two type of carriers ( peatmoss or broth media ) , in addation to four control treatments (75% , 50% and 100 %) of recommended chemical fertilizer and control treatment of without bio or chemical fertilizer . Results showed the effect of the triple interaction of biofertilizer + mineral fertilizer + carriers . So the treatment local biofertilizer + 75% recommended mineral fertilizer + peat moss carrier gave the highest value for percentage of dry matter of vegatitive part 42.2% and also the same treatment was superior for plant height , percentage of tuber matter , mean tuber weight , tuber starch content , protein content of tubers , total yield of crop and the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus in soil after harvesting with the values 71.93 cm , 23.93 % , 890 gm , 17.32 % , 12.93% , 66.37 mega gm ha-1 , 41.00 mg kg-1 soil ,10.98 mg kg-1 soil respectively while the treatment imported biofertilizer + 75% recommended mineral fertilizer + peatmoss carrier gave the beast availability for potassium 186.75 mega gm ha-1, and this treatment of triple interaction was Superior over the control treatments including 100% mineral fertilizer recommendation.

A COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF PEDUNCLES FOR PLANT SPECIES OF COMPOSITAE (ASTERACEAE) FAMILY

Mohammed Othman Mousa

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 66-78

The Compositae (Asteraceae) family is one of the largest and most widespread plant families in the world. This study included small part of the anatomical characteristics of the peduncles, which included the characteristics and dimensions of the epidermis, cortex, vascular cylinder and its components, medullary rays, pith through the cross sections of peduncles belonging to 12 wild species belonging to 11 genera were collected during 2013, 2014 and 2018, and diagnosed in herbarium of University of Anbar. These sections gave a clear and new anatomical imprint for each species added to the previous morphological and genetic imprints to be used in isolating plant species categorically, microscopic sections were filmed with a tabulated selection of anatomical measurements.

PRIMING OF MAIZE SEED WITH GIBBERELLIN (GA3) TO TOLERATE DROUGHT STRESS. 1. GERMINATION AND SEEDLING VIGOUR

Hiba Saleh Nada; Jalal Hameed Hamza

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 79-89

A factorial experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions in 2017 at the postgraduate laboratories at the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, University of Baghdad. The experiment aimed to study the response of maize cultivars seed (Baghdad3, Fajr1, Almaha and Sara) to be primed with GA3 (soaking seed in 300 mg L-1 for 24 hours) to tolerate drought stress (-5, -8, and -11 bar) in germination stage. Complete randomize design (CRD) with four replications was used according to factorial experiments. Data statistical analysis was done and mean were compared using the least significant difference at 5% probability. The simple correlation analysis was done between the studied traits: germination ratio at final count, lengths of root and plumule, seedling dry weight, root to plumule ratio, seedling growth rate and seedling vigour index. The results showed the analysis of variance indicates significant differences in the effect of tri-interaction between cultivars, seed priming and drought stress. The treatment of tri-interaction (Baghdad3 × primed seed × -5) significantly  exceeded the rest of the treatments by giving the highest average of germination ratio at the final count (89.0%) and did not differ significantly with the same treatment at the osmotic potential of -8 or -11 bar. The treatment of tri-interaction (Almaha × primed seed × -5) significantly exceeded the rest of the treatments by giving the highest average length of root (6.2 cm) and the highest mean of seedling vigour index (876.5). It can be conclude that there is a role for genotypes and seed priming process to tolerate drought stress to somewhat extent. Therefore, it can be recommend planting one of the two cultivars of Baghdad3 or Sara after priming their seed to improve their performance under conditions of drought stress or not

EFFECT OF SACK COLOR IN SOME PROPERTIES OF TWO CULTIVARS DATES PALM GROWING IN CLAY SOIL

Khaled Naji Abdul

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 90-98

The study was carried out at the Horticulture Research Station / Ministry of Agriculture south of Baghdad during 20/2/2017 upto 1/10/2017 aimed to study the effect of calcification with different colored sack on some physical, chemical and quantitative properties of date palm fruits. The experiment consisted of two types of date palm (Barhi and Brem). The second factor is the type of packing (without packing, the bags are red bags, the bags are yellow bags, and packing with green bags). The experiment was designed according to the design of the whole RCBD as an experiment with three replicates. result showed that there was a significant effect of the cultivar on the fruit and the soluble solids (TSS) is 8.35 g. Fruit -1 and 7.21 g. Fruit -1, 37.73% and 36.35%, respectively, while the total sugar content was superior on the Brem cultivar for Barhi cultivar by 29.62% and 23.73%, respectively. The effect of the calcification factor exceeded the red color on all the parameters and in the weight of the fruit and the weight of the total and the total weight of 8.75 g. Fruit -1 and 10.29 kg and 102.86 kg, respectively. Binary interference was found to exceed the superiority of Barhi and red color on all interference factors In the rate of the weight of the fruit was 9.50 g. Fruit -1 while the overall effect of the same treatment superior to all transactions, except the treatment of interference between the Prim and red, which amounted to 108.06 and 97.66 kg, respectively.

ALGAE AS BIOINDICATORS FOR DETERMINING THE WATER QUALITY OF EUPHRATES RIVER IN HADITHA CITY

Adeeb Abdul-Jabbar Alhadithy; Huda Abdullah Al

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 99-109

The current study included the use of algae as bioindicators to assess the quality of the Euphrates River within the city of Haditha. Four sites on the river were selected and samples were collected every month for a year since March 2017. Some important environmental factors have been studied for the growth of algae, including water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient concentrations such as phosphates and nitrates. Two biological indices were applied: (Shannon Weaver Diversity Index) and (Algal Genus Pollution Index), which are based on water quality. The results showed that the water ranged from clean to medium pollution except site 2, which is likely to have a high level of pollution. During the study, 206 species of algae were identified. The predominance was to Bacillarophyta followed by Chlorophyta then Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta and then Pyrrophyta. The predominant species were: Bacillaria paxillifer, Cocconeis placentula, Nitzschia amphibia, N.cryptocephala, N.dissipata and Fragilaria crotensis

SOME ASPECTS OF BREEDING OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS

Shamil E.Neama; Ali F.A. Almehemdi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 110-132

Plants have been exploited a source of medicines throughout human history and in all cultures. Scientific progress has allowed us to identify a minor fraction of the active compounds and their modes of action. Subsequently, it has greatly contributed to the development of modern medicines. Though, there is no suspicion that the biological information of how to synthesize the extremely complex bio-active compounds is involved within genome of medicinal plants. In the genomic era, medicinal plants are not represented only a source of chemical constituents, possessing acquired a new interest, but also serve as a source of genes included in formation of active principles. Thus, it represents as joint duty not only to derive information from these plants and to exploit this information wisely, but also to preserve them for future generations. Therefore, hence some highlights are provided on some thoughts that dealt with traditional methods of plant breeding applied on medicinal and aromatic plants thereby other thoughts are extracted supplemented with references to elucidate the multifaceted aspects for medicinal purposes.furthermore, it was referred to some early selection methods using recent statistical techniques as GGE Biplot, AMMI Biplot and ternary plot.

QUALITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF THE TRESPASS ON LAND IN THE CITY OF HIT

Ahmed Hassan Awad; Lina Rashad Chaloob

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 133-149

The problem of land trespass is one of the most serious and critical problems that has been suffered and is still being suffered in Hit Town. This problem has its own harmful effects on for most possible uses of the lands, and this has been negatively reflected on services in the city of Hit. The solution for such problem has even become more difficult due to the unplanned increase in population rates. This increase requires greater housing and services demands. The inability that provides these legitimate requirements by the municipality, has represented the focal point from which these land violations occurred. This could be the basic reason for the ongoing expansion of these violations along the stages of urban development of the city. This research aims to highlight the most important types of land overruns within the scope of this specific study, which is the master plan for the city of Hit, and how to distribute the neighborhoods of the city. These violations took various types based on the differences in the natural and human characteristics of the place. Thus, there arises the need to conduct a field study to cover this problem within each neighborhood of the city. The study adopted a historical approach, statistical approach, and an analytical approach, and in the field study method, in drawing conclusions to study abuses in Hit Town

GEOMORPHIC CHANGES IN MORPHOMETRIC VALUE OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER BETWEEN HADITHA DAM AND RAMADI BETWEEN 1985-2017 COMPARATIVE STUDY USING REMOTE SENSITIVITY DATA AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Ruqaya Ahmed Ameen; Awrad Emad Shehab

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 150-166

In this study, the Euphrates river bed was studied using a geomorphological indicator in terms of its length and capacity. The changes that occurred in the natural phenomena from the course, which included the turns, the river islands and the flow velocity between 1985 and 2017, This was done using (Arc GIS 10.3) and satellite imagery .In the study, the following results were obtained: the curves were characterized by the zigzag and the change of the length of the riverbed from 2,179 to 16,181. In terms of capacity, after selecting 15 sites, some sites were reached towards widening and the other narrow. In addition to the islands, the number of islands increased to 42 after 31 during the time period mentioned above. The changes in the flood plain increase the area on the left side and decrease it on the right side.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL To TOBAMOVIRUS TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS (ISOLATED FROM SOME PLANTS and DESERT SOIL GYPSIFEROUS DESERT SOIL USING DXN-GANODERMA and DXN-SPIRULINA FOOD SUPPLEMENTS in SALADIN GOVERNORATE.

Maadh Abd Al- Wahab Al Fahad; Ashwaq Talb Mohammad

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 167-175

This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of food supplement DXN-Ganoderma, produced from the red fungus Ganoderma lucidum and DXN- Spirulina from spirulina platensis on the Tobacco mosaic virus in the virus research lab / College of Agriculture / Tikrit University. The virus was diagnosed with RT-PCR. The S. platensis was superior in reducing the TMV virus on all varieties as the values by 64.4% on Syrian variety, 75.00% Black Hybrid variety, and 82.4% of Iraqi variety. Also S. platensis reduced TMV infection to 33.4% compared to 70.01% in with the treatment TMV alone. The treatment of S. platensis, and fungus G. lucidum were given significant differences in Chlorophyll, plant height, leaf area as they reached 54.4 spad, 52.7cm and , 71.3cm² respectively, compared to34.3 spad, 22.9 cm and 17.5 cm2 respectively. While the treatment of fungus G. lucidum and algae S. platensis increased growth indicators for eggplant plants of root, shoot dry weight and the yield were, 17.3gm , 129.2gm and 4.572 kg respectively, compared to 6.3gm, 22.9cm, 0.450 kg, respectively.Keywords: Tobacco mosaic virus, Spirulina platensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Eggplant.

URBAN GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ITS ROLE IN THE EVOLUTION OF MORPHOLOGICAL STAGES OF THE CITY-QAAEM COMPARATIVE STUDY SINCE ORIGINATION TO YEAR 2017 USING GIS (ARC MAP)

Younus H . Oleiwi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2018, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 176-184

This research dealt with the impact of urban geomorphology in the morphological evolution of the Qaaem city, depending on modern technologies such as remote sensing and geographic information systems, it show that a larger role in the detection of and follow-up, analysis and interpretation of the evolution of the city and its extension. If the comparative study between the emergence of the city in the position and development of the site, which has grown and expanded it by relying on a set of indicators that altered by the researcher to suit the nature of the study within the time periods that have been identified since the beginnings emergence of the city until 2017, it was found that the city took it extends longitudinally in parallel with river to the presence of natural determinants represented topography western plateau, taking advantage of the few territories, decline in the construction of housing units on them, as the study found that urban factor in the expansion of the city of index of population growth and economic index and the index of administrative is influential elder primarily the behavior of urban sprawl into the ground units.