Volume 9, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2019


VULGARIS ACTIVITY AGAINST OF Leishmania tropica PROMASTIGOTES; IN VITRO.

Ban Hussein Ali; Mohammad M. F. Al-Halbosiy; Thaer A. Saleh

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem and an endemic disease in Iraqi population, Leishmania tropica is one of the causes of leishmaniasis in Baghdad. Considering the inefficiency of current drugs and the fact that some varieties of Leishmania are resistant to these treatments, new drugs are being researched in order to find a more selective and effective therapy with fewer side effects. Therefore, our research group conducted studies on new therapeutic agents. This study is intended to investigate the effect ethanol extract of Chara vulgaris at concentrations (15.6-500) µg/mL in the growth rate and viability of leishmania tropica isolates and compared with pentostam (3.12-100) µg/mL In-vitro. (15.6, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 µg/mL) in vitro by MTT assay [3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2.5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide)], to investigate its effect on the proliferation of promastigotes. Three incubation periods (24, 48, 72 hr.).

EFFECT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM ON SOME SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES WITHIN THE RICE REGION IN IRAQ

Ali H. Al-Bayati; Mays Taha Yaqoub Al-Hiti; Ali Hussein Ibrahim Al-Bayati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-13

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term agriculture on the monoculture system of rice crop and the crop rotation system of rice-wheat crops compared to not cultivated soil in some soil physical properties within the rice region southern Iraq. A representative pedon was diagnosed at each of the above agricultural systems in three locations, namely the Abbasiyah, Shami and Mashkhab districts within the provinces of Najaf and Qadisiyah, so that the land use period is not less than 50 years. Disturbed soil samples were collected from each diagnosed horizon at each site, and some physical characteristics were estimated. The results showed the values of the clay separate was ranged from 101-395 g.Kg-1, sand 56-512 g.Kg-1 and silt 325-837 g.Kg-1. The soil texture in the three study area was within the medium to fine classes, the results also showed that there was a difference in the bulk density values of the studied soils, it was ranging from 1.31 - 1.78 Mg.m-3, the highest values for this parameter were recorded in the pedons which used in the crop rotation system compared to the monoculture system, with a significant increase in soil resistance for penetration values, reached 18.3% compared to non-cultivated lands soil. There was also a significant increase in the weighted diameters rate when the land cultivated, it was increased from 0.08 mm in the not cultivated soils to 2.01 mm and 2.15 mm in the monoculture and crop rotation farming systems.

EFFECT OF NANOPARTICLES CONCENTRATION INCREASE FOR ZNO UNDER LIQUID PHASE ON PURIFICATION OF WATER CONTAMINATED WITH PHENOL AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

Ahmed Mishaal Mohammed; Asmiet Ramizy; Abdulkareem Hammoodi Assaf

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 14-23

Used nanoparticles of ZnO with liquid phase and prepared 100 mJ, and the number of pulses (300,600) pulse using (PLA). To remove phenols dissolved in water at a concentration of 100 mg.mol-1 and at different temperatures (25,35,45,55) ºС. The study confirmed that the percentage of purification of water polluted with phenol decreases with the increase of temperature at the concentration of nanoparticles prepared (300) pulses, but when the concentration of nanoparticles prepared with 600 pulses, the heat factor is not effective, and increase the rate of purification (adsorption efficiency) to 98.427%. The study of thermodynamic functions indicates that the type of adsorption between nanoparticles used and phenol is physical, automatic, heat-emitting and very efficient.

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATOR INDOLE-3 BUTYRIC ACID AND AGRICULTURAL MEDIA TO PROPAGATION OF Hibiscus rosa - sinensis L. CUTTINGS UNDER PROTECTED ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS

Hamid H. Al ali; Alaa H. Hamad

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 24-32

This experiment was carried out in green house of Department of Horticulture and Garden Engineering, College of Agriculture, University of Anbar for the period from 1/4/2018 to 1/11/2018 at study the effect of the growth regulator Regulator Indole-3 butyric acid (IBA) on concentrations of 0, 1500, 3000, 4500 mg. L-1 and the agricultural media of sand, sand with peatmoss 2: 1, sand with poultry litter 3% to propagation the cutting of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis L. Plant. By using a stem cutting and hard wood, this study according to carried out as Factorial Experimental with a Complete randomized design (CRD) 4 x 3. It included 12 experimental units with three replicates of 20 cutting in each experimental unit and means were compared using L.S.D test on 5% probability. The results showed the following. The results showed that immersion of cutting in concentrations of IBA achieved a significant increase in rooting ratios and a superior concentration of 4500 mg. L-1, giving the highest rooting rate of 90.00%, while the comparison treatment recorded the lowest rate of 36.67%. The concentrations achieved 4500 mg. L-1 significant increases for all charachters in this study including: mean of number, and diameter of root, mean number and area of leaves, height of plant, content of leaves from NPK reached of 24.00 root.cutting-1, 5.31 mm.root-1, 73.74 leaf. Trans plant-1, 7264.70 cm2. Trans plant-1, 81.89 cm. Trans plant-1, 2.10%, 1.77%, 0.55%, respectively. While, the control treatment gave the lowest value of 5.33 root.cutting-1, 1.62 mm.root-1, 45.15 leaf. Trans plant-1, 3534.52 cm2. Trans plant-1, 60.19 cm. Trans plant-1, 1.92%, 1.73%, 0.53 %, respectively. The treatment of the agricultural media /sand with poultry litter 3%/ have a significant effect on all the characters compared to the other media of 19.42 root.cutting-1, 5.49 mm.root-1, 111.00 leaf. Tran's plant-1, 13886.16 cm2. Trans plant-1, 110.08 cm. Trans plant-1, 2.17%, 1.78%, 0.57%, respectively. But, the control treatment gave lowest value of 13.58 root.cutting-1, 2.42 mm.root-1, 32.64 leaf. Trans plant-1, 1025.78 cm2. Trans plant-1, 45.92 cm. Trans plant-1, 1.89%, 1.71%, 0.52%, respectively. The interaction of the study factors significantly affected the root and vegetative characters of plants after six months of cultivation. The interaction between of IBA concentration 4500 mg-1 and media sand with poultry litter 3% significantly exceeded the other treatments by giving the highest rates of the previous studied.

STUDY THE VARIATIONS IN EXPLOITATION OF WATER FOR SELECTED AREAS OF THE EUPHRATES RIVER BY USING GIS.

Waleed Y. ALubide; Sabaah H. Ali; Gadda Y. Alubide

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 36-45

In the current research the variation in the exploitation of water have been studding by using the difference in the areas of green vegetation of the eastern part of the territory( inside Iraq) and western part ( inside Syrian) of the Euphrates river valley. In this study the visual satellite, which was taken for the study area in May 2005, by American satellite US Landsat-quality T.M. have been analyzed by using ERDAS Imagine V. 8.3,and Arc View ver. 3.2. Where the spectral analysis of the studied areas has been identify and locate the green vegetation by using the oriented Supervised Classification and the geographic information systems techniques have been used to identify the real reasons of the variations in the water exploitation for this area. These techniques include preparation of the land cover, slop, contour, and three-dimensional maps of the studied area. The results showed great variability in the exploitation of the waters of the Euphrates, on both sides of the border Iraq and Syria, and this was detect from the great variability in the area of green vegetation on the Syrian side of the basin of the Euphrates River, and is about (29.3) seq.mile of the Syrian side, and (6.6) seq.mile on the Iraqi side. and the mean reason of this verity is due the nature and the distribution of the valley of the Euphrates River (widening and narrowing).

EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SEAWEED EXTRACTS AND ACARICIDES IN SOME PROPERTIESOF DATE PALM Phoneix dactylifera L. VAR. KHASTAWI

Rasmi M. H. AL-Dulaimy; Khalid W. Ibade; Z. A. Al-Ealayawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 46-55

To investigate the evaluation of the efficiency of spraying with seaweed extracts, chemical pesticides and dates spray on some physical, chemical and productive properties of date palm cv. khastawi, a field experiment was conducted during of 2018 in one of the private palm orchards infected with dust mite (Oligoneychus afrasaiticus) in the village of Al-Bu'ali al-Jassim, northwest of Ramadi, RCBD with three replications as factorial at two factors was used. first factor was sprayed with 2.5 ml L-1 seaweed extract (Stimplex), Two types of pesticides Koffex and Miteclean were sprayed with 1ml L-1, seconed was spraying dates (15 / 4, 15 / 6). The results showed significant differences between the two dates in properties under study. The results showed that the treatment of pesticide Miteclean with seaweed extract was significantly higher in the two date in properties, fruit length (36.58 mm), the diameter of the fruit (24.17 mm), kernel weight (1.05 gm) and the diameter of the kernel (8.89 mm), and scrod the highest percentages of total sugars (27.91%) and percentage of N (0.98%), P (0.18%), K (1.10%) and total chlorophyll in the leaves (0.95 mg. gm-1). as well as of this study showed an increase in the productive Features, (shark weight, number of fruits by shark 1 and the total yield of date plam), the highest values were scored which were 230.10 gm, 19.63 fruit. shark-1 and 157.04 kg respectively, and reduced percentage of infestation with dust mite, which achieved value 0.00% compared with pesticide alone (7.00%). Therefore it can be concluded that the application of seaweed extracts and acaricides was the most efficient in properties under study and the positive consequences on total yield and yield components of date plam.

EFFECT OF SPRAING WITH SOME NUTRIENTS ON GRAPE SAPLINGS CHARACTERS Var. HALAWANI AND BLACK HAMBURG

Sameer A. A. Saleh; Huda M. Mohammed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 56-64

The study was carried out in the wooden canopy of the Department of Horticulture and Garden Engineering/ college of Agriculture/ Anbar University the season of 2018 to study the effect of some nutrients on the activation of the growth grape varieties of Halawani and Black Hamburg, where the following nutrients were used: Humic acid and amino acids (0, 1.5 and 3m.L -1) Algae extract (0, 1.5 and 3 g.L-1) by using the random complete block design were sprayed as of 15/5/2018 and repeated every twenty days with four sprinkles. The study showed an increase in the properties of leaf area for sapling, branches number, chlorophyll content, the percentage of dray matter in leaves and percentage or ripened wood and total wood when Algae extract treatment 1.5 g.l-1 to (284.79 dcm2, 3.33branch .Sapling-1, 41.89 mg.g-1 fresh weight, 46.58% and 84.93%), respectively, While it decreased in control to (109.60 dcm2, 2.08 branch .Sapling-1, 33.58 mg.g-1 fresh weight,38.52% and 46.44%), respectively. The percentage of dray matter in branches when Algae extract used 3 g.l-1 increased to 46.52% while its decreased in counted to 39.65%.

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND IRRIGATION SCHEDULING ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT AND SOIL PENETRATION RESISTANCE, ROOT DISTRIBUTION PLANT OF MUNG BEAN (Vigna radita L.)

Isam Kudhaier H. Alhadeethi; Saifulldeen A. Salim; Mohammad A. Khalil

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 65-80

Two field experiment was carried out in the feed crop studies station of the Ministry of Agriculture - Haditha agriculture division located in the village of Sakran - Haditha district 260 km west of Baghdad. The location lies on longitude 42 22' 21'' east and longitude 34 08' 23'' north, and 80 m above sea level, On the ground dimensions (21 x 30 m) for each experiment, during the autumn season 2018. The aim of this study is to find out the role of soil surface crusting and its relationship with tillage pattern, irrigation interval and its relationship with soil moisture content, under surface and drip irrigation methods. The treatments of each experiment were distributed individually using Split-Plot Design, with three replication. Transactions were distributed randomly, with each experiment included two experiment on six treatments using zero tillage mode T0, minimum tillage T1 and conventional tillage T2 and two irrigation intervals are two days I1 and four days I2. The results showed, Zero tillage of both irrigation methods (surface and drip irrigation) and two-day irrigation interval resulted in more soil moisture content compared to conventional tillage, Conventional tillage reduced the soil penetration resistance by half at the same percentage of water. for all experiment treatments and both irrigation methods compared with zero tillage and minimum tillage, where the soil penetration resistance by using conventional tillage was 0.5 kg cmˉ² and at 30% pw. The results showed that the longest height and the highest dry root weight was for T0I2 treatment reached to 0.33m and 14 gm, respectively when drip irrigation method was used, while the root length for the T1I1 treatment was 0.29 m and the highest dry root weight of 13 g was for T2I1 treatment when drip irrigation method was used also.

CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE FOR CUCUMBER IN GREEN HOUSE IN WEST IRAQ

I. A. Mohammed; I. K. H. Al-Hadeethi; M. M. M. Alabdaly

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 81-91

A field experiment was carried out at the College of Agriculture - University of Anbar to study the water consumptive use of cucumber plant for protected cultivation grown under unheated plastic house condition with dimensions 44 m in length and 9 m in width. Three locally produced hybrids were planted in the experiment and compared to a foreign hybrid approved by the Ministry of Agriculture. Irrigation was carried out when 30, 50 and 70% of available water depletion. The results showed that there was an increasing in water consumptive use during spring season reached 429.04,423.20 and 399.60 mm season-1 compared with 352.42, 344.62 and 344.60 mm season-1 for the autumn season for 30, 50 and 70% depletion of available water respectively. The moisture distribution results showed that the highest moisture content was 30% depletion reached 34.3% within the root zone at a depth of 20 cm, which is closest to the field capacity limit while it was 33.8% and 31.8% for the depletion levels 50 and 70% respectively at the same depth. The depletion level of 30% gave the highest yield reached 3.397 and 5.190 kg plant -1 for the autumn and spring seasons in respectively compared to the 70% depletion treatment which gave the lowest yield was 3.061 and 3.857 kg plant -1. Depletion at 30% gave the best values of water use efficiency reached 113.40 and 142.30 kg m-3 for the autumn and spring seasons respectively.

EFFECT OF NITROGEN LEVELS AND FOLIAR APPLICATION WITH IRON AND ZINC ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF THE )Lactuca sativa L.)

Fowzi Mohsin Ali Al-Hamadani; Safwan Nawaf Fayez Al-Khazraje

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 92-106

In order to determine the effect of nitrogen levels and spraying with iron and, zinc individually or together on the growth and yield of lettuce plant, a field experiment was conducted in one of the agricultural fields located in the Sufiya area of Ramadi district in Al-Anbar Governorate, on the longitude 29.34- east, latitude 33.22- north and height 48 m above sea level, which is about 1250 m from the right bank of the Euphrates River during the winter season of 2018. The experiment included two factors, the first factor four Levels of nitrogen (50,100,150 and 200 kg N ha-1) and the second factor four Treatments: (0,240 mgL-1 of Fe,120 mgL-1 of Zn and 240 +120 mg. L-1 of Fe+Zn), an experiment was carried out according to the design of the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates per treatment, results indicated that the level 200 kgN.ha-1 had significant effect in all the characteristics of vegetative growth and its components such as plant height (46.09 cm Plant-1) and leafy area (7460.80 cm2plant-1) and dry weight (200.25 gm plant-1), head diameter (42.54 cm), head circumference (92.22 cm) and number of leaves (55.74 leaves-1), and qualities of the yield and its components as the percentage of the wrap heads (98.57%), marketing yield (62.23 Mg.ha-1) and total product (89.49 Mg ha-1), Foliar application with (240 mg Fe L-1 +120 mg Zn L-1) had significant in all Characteristics of vegetative growth such as plant height (42.59 cm), leafy area (6230.17 cm.Plant-1), dry weight (188.39 gm plant-1), head diameter (39.12 cm), head circumference (86.20 cm), The number of valid papers to eat (32.00 leaf -1) and total number of leaves per plant (50.95 leaf -1) Foliar (240 mg Fe L-1 +120 mgZn L-1) together gave a significant superiority in yield characteristics and components such as percentage of head wrap (96.34%) and marketing yield (49.23 Mg ha-1) and total yield (74.87 Mg ha-1).