Volume 12, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2022, Page 1-89

A Comparative Study of Evapotranspiration Measurement Using SEBAL Model and Atmometer in the Diyala River Basin

Ibraheem A. H. Al-Sumaidaie; Ramzi M. Shihab; Aiad A. khalaf

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174556

Satellite images were taken on the following dates, 1/3/2020, 2/4/2020, 23/3/2020, 24/4/2020, 10/5/2020, 11/6/2020 and 7/13/2020 from the web of the  USGS to the area of A.L.- Muqdadiya District, Diyala river basin, Diyala Governorate within (45˚0′7.268̋ and 44˚ 46′ 0.063̋) east and (34˚8′ 47.475̋ and 33˚56′36.621̋) north. The total study area was 736,372 km2, and the area covered with vegetation was 477,606 km2. The SEBAL model was wired to estimate evapotranspiration (E.T.)  for the months of the study, both locally and temporally. Remote sensing was used based on satellite  Landsat-8  images by sensor OLI  as radiation data input. In addition, the meteorological data was used for each date. 28 points were randomly taken within the study area. Atmometer (ETgage) was used to measure daily evapotranspiration, Also the Penman-Monteith equation (FAO56). Was used to estimate E.T. The results showed a good relationship between E.T., estimated by the SEBAL model and measured with an atmometer (R2 = 0.9508). Also, good agreement was showed  between SEBAL and FAO 56 (R2 = 0.9913) and atmometer and FAO 56 (R2 = 0.9216). 437 Mm3 of water is required to meet the needs of crops, representing the maximum quantity of water for the study period. 

Effect of Evapotranspiration and Tillage Pattern on Water Use Efficiency and Growth, Yield of Chenopodium quinoa

Abdul Sameea J.A. Al Hiti; Issam Kh. H. Al-Hadethi; Saifuldeen A. Salim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174555

The field experiment is conducted in sandy loam soil during the spring season of 2021 in western Iraq, Hit district, Anbar Governorate. It is located at longitude 95° 42ꞌ 25ʺ N and latitude 68° 33ꞌ 42ʺ E at 71 m.asl. This study aims to study the effect of irrigation and plough on the yield and efficiency of water use of the Chenopodium quinoa plant in desert soil in western Iraq. The experiment layout includes three tillage patterns ) No-tillage To, minimum tillage T1, and conventional tillage T2), three irrigation treatments )ET 0.75  -ET 1.00 - ET 1.25(, and a randomized complete block design is used with three replicates. Treatment T2 ET 1.00 has the highest drought resistance of 0.1793 and the highest plant length of 118.4 cm for T2 ET 1.25 treatment with an increase of 70% compared to the lowest value of plant length in the treatment To ET 0.75. The highest value of plant branches is 22 for T2 ET 1.25. The highest value of leaf area is 32.87 cm2 for T2 ET 1.25 treatment. Seed yield has reached the highest value of 5.25 tons ha-1 for the treatment T2 ET 1.25. Root length characteristic has reached the highest root length value with 41.67 cm for T2 ET 1.25. The water use efficiency characteristic has reached the highest value of 0.204 kg.m-3 for the treatment T2 ET 1.00. The highest crop coefficient value has been reached in the ET 1.25 treatment during the germination and growth phase.

Effect of Phosphate Fertilization on the Growth and Yield of Three Genotypes of Faba Bean( Vicia faba L.)

Ismail A. Sarhan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174557

A field experiment was carried out in the winter season 2020-2021 in Al- Bualwan area of  Fallujah District - Anbar Governorate to study the effect of phosphate fertilization on the growth and yield traits of the faba bean crop. The experiment was applied using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) according to the split-plot arrangement with three replications. The main plots included three levels of phosphate fertilization (0, 60, 120) kg P2O5 h-1, while the sub plots included three faba bean genotypes (American, Italian, and Dutch). According to the study levels, phosphate fertilizer was added in one batch before planting. The most important results were the following: The American genotype superiority in growth and yield traits, giving the highest average for each plant height( 95.63) cm, number of branches (10.11 ) branch plan-1 , leaf area per plant( 1053) cm2 plant-1, number of pods( 17.50 )pod plant-1, number of seeds per pod (6.11) seed pod-1, the weight of 100 seed (96.06) g and the total seed yield is( 4.168) tons ha-1. The effect of phosphate fertilizer was significantly in most of the studied traits. The level 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 gave the highest average for each of the plant height( 94.00) cm, number of branches( 9.83) branch plant-1, leaf area of the plant (2342) cm 2 plant-1, number of pods (17.83) pod plant-1, weight of 100  seed( 95.44) g and total seeds yield( 4.078) tons ha-1. There was a significant interaction between the American genotype and the level of 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 of phosphate fertilizer in plant height, number of branches per plant, leaf area, number of pods per plant and weight of 100 seeds.

Effect of Levels of Potassium Fertilizer and Seeding Rates on the Growth and Yield of Oats Avena Sativa L.

Mohammed R. J. Thmail; Waleed A. T. El-Fahdawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 38-47
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174558

A field experiment was carried out at the Research Station of the College of Agriculture-University of Anbar in Hamidiyah area of Ramadi District-Anbar Governorate and located at 33º north latitude and 43º east longitude, during the winter season of 2020-2021, to study the effect of four levels of potassium fertilizer (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg K ha-1) In the form of potassium sulfateK2SO4(41.5% K)and four seeding rates(80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha-1)on growth, yield and components of oats. The randomised complete block design (RCBD) was used according to the split-plot arrangement, with three replicates. The main plot was the seeding rates, and the subplots were potassium fertilizer levels. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the seeding rate exceeded 140kg ha-1 significantly in some studied traits: height of the plant, number of tiller m-2, number of panicles (297.4 paniclem-2), weight of 1000 grains (48.49 g) and grain yield (1,662 tons ha-1), while the seeding rate120 kg ha-1 was significantly superior to the number of grains of panicle (14.20 grains panicle-1). The results showed that fertilizer level of 160 kg K ha-1was significantly superior in most of the studied traits, such as area of flag leaf,  number of panicles (310.2 paniclem-2), number of grains (14.72 grain panicle-1), the weight of 1000 grains (52.62 g) and grain yield(1.831 ton ha-1.The interaction between seeding rate and potassium fertilization significantly affected most of the studied traits. The seeding rate achieved 140 kg ha-1 with a potassium fertilizer level of 160 completed the highest values: number of tillers (398 tillers m-2) and weight of 1000 grains (55.00 g). The interaction between the seeding rate of 120 kg ha-1with  level of fertilizer 160 kg K ha-1 had the highest significant overlap of the number of grains (17.07 grainspanicle-1).

Determine the Competitive Ability of Some Sorghum Cultivars by the Effect of Weed Control Treatments

Khubeab Yousef; Abdullateef M. Al-Kaisy

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 48-58
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174580

A field experiment was carried out in 2021 during the autumn season in soil with a mixture texture in Anbar Governorate, Ramadi District in research station of college of agriculture, university of Anbar in Al-Hamidiyah region. To study the effect of the competitive ability of some sorghum cultivars in the accompanying weeds with the impact of weed control treatments, The experiment was included three hoeings (hoeing once, hoeing twice, and hoeing three times) in addition to the control treatment with three cultivars of sorghum (Lilo, Angath and Rabeh). The experiment was designed according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and in the arrangement of split plots and three replications, as the hoes were at main plots while cultivars were at subplots. The results were as follows. Data showed a significant effect of the study factors in the studied traits, the number of weeds, and their dry weight, whether three times of hand weeding gave the highest plant height (194.87 cm), 500-grain weight (19.22 g), grain yield 8.85-ton hectare-1. As for the cultivars, the cultivar recorded the highest average of the leaf area (5900 cm2 plant-1) and the percentage of protein (8.48%).

Effect of Plant Density and Propnit Herbicide on the Weeds and Grain Yield of Sorghum

Areej Al-Mohammedi; Shaker M. Saleh; Mohammed R. Ahmed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 59-68
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174581

A field experiment was carried out during the spring season of 2020 in the experimental field of the College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences - University of Baghdad - Abu Ghraib to know the effect of weed controlling broad and narrow leaf weeds and grain yield of sorghum (Inqath cultivar). Randomized complete block design (RCBD) was used according to split plots at three replications. The main plots included three weed control treatments (spraying of propnit herbicide at the recommended dose of 450-500 ml dunum-1 and half recommended dose of 225-250 ml donum-1) and weedy and free weedy treatments. In contrast, the subplots included three plant densities (1.0×105, 1.5×105, and 2.0×105, plants ha-1). The results of the statistical analysis indicate that the spraying of herbicides Proponit at the recommended concentration recorded the lowest average density of broad and narrow leaves (7.89 7 and 2.22 plants m-2) and the highest percentage of controlling broad and narrow leaves (72.17 88.03%) and the highest percentage of inhibiting the dry weight (75.33%). As for the effect of plant density, the results indicated that there was a significant effect of plant density in most of the studied traits, where the plant density recorded 200 thousand plants ha-1, the lowest numerical density for broad leaves and the percentage of their control (4.79 plants m-2 and 69.74%), and the plant density recorded 100 thousand The plant ha-1 had the highest inhibition rate of 63.53%. The plant density exceeded 150 thousand plants ha-1, and the highest grain yield was 6.03 tons ha-1. The different combinations between the two studied factors significantly affected most of the studied traits.

Effect of Planting Dates on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Six Bread Wheat Cultivars

Rawia Mahmud; Zeyad A. Abdulhamed; Mohammed A.M. Alogaidi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 69-78
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174582

The study was conducted during the season 2020-2021 in Abu Ghraib Field Crops  Research  Station / Agricultural Research Office using six varieties of beard wheat (Triticum aestivum. L) (Ebaa 99, Abu Ghraib 3, Babel 113, Booth 10, Baghdad 1 and Al-Rasheed) to know the effects of three planting dates (15 Nov., 1 Dec. and 15 Dec.) in growth yield and its components characteristics. The study was carried out using the split-plot design in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The main plots included planting dates, and the secondary plots included the varieties. The planting date (1 Dec.) recorded the highest grain yield of 5.88 tons.ha-1 and did not differ significantly from (15 Dec), while the planting date of (15 Nov.) which gave the lowest grain yield of 5.33 tons.ha-1.  There were significant differences between varieties. Baghdad1give the highest value of grain yield, 6.26 tons.ha-1, 16.96 tons.ha-1, while  Babel113 give the highest value weight of 1000 grains 48 .78g.  Al-Rashid cultivar recorded the lowest value of grain yield, grain filling period, 1000-grain weight, and harvest index amounted to 4.93 tons.ha-1, 45.55 days, 43.67 g, and 31.45%, respectively. The interaction between the varieties and planting dates was significant, as Abu Ghraib3, planted on 1 Dec., gave the highest grain yield, 6.94 tons.ha-1 is significantly superior to the cultivars planted at different dates, giving less than 5.50 tons.ha-1

Effect of Soil Management and Its Texture on Aggregate Stability Parameters and Wetting Rate

Dakhil R. Nedawi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, 2022, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 79-89
DOI: 10.36531/ijds.2022.174583

The present study was carried out to evaluate the soil management and soil texture on the structure parameters and soil water wetting rate. Six soil samples of 0-30 cm depth were selected from three different sites in the texture of Clay, loam and Sandy loam in Basra Governorate (Abi Al-Khasib, Madinah and Zubair). Three samples represented the treatment of soil management (soil cultivated with alfalfa crop for 7 years respectively). The other three samples were from the same sites for uncultivated soil (bare soil), with three replicates for each sample. Soil organic matter content, bulk density, mean weight diameter, aggregate stability percentage and water wetting rate were measured. The results showed that the soil management factor had a highly significant effect in raising the values ​​of OM, MWD and WSA%. It was as a general average of 56.337 gm.Kg-1, 0.893 mm,71.33%, respectively, and on the other hand, soil management led to a decrease in the values ​​of 𝛒𝐛 (1.38 Mgm.Kg-1) and WR (0.2522 cm33gm-1 min-1), and its rise in uncultivated soil of 1.51 Mgm.Kg-1, 0.3989 cm33gm-1 min-1, respectively. While the soil texture factor effect that the clay texture had the highest values ​​as the average of OM (34.71 gm.Kg-1), MWD (0.8 mm) and WSA (62.67%), followed by loam and sandy loam, respectively. While a decrease in the values ​​of 𝛒𝐛 (1.325 Mgm.Kg-1 ) and WR (0.265 cm33gm-1 min-1) in Clay soil with a significant difference compared to loam and sandy loam soil, and the interaction between the soil management factor and the increase in its content of silt and clay led to an improvement the soil properties.